dopey's version from 2015-07-21 06:12


Question Answer
Localized InfectionOne area affected
Systemic Infection> One area affected
Acute InfectionShort term, pathogen is removed, may or may not be disease (Influenza)
Persistent InfectionLong term, pathogen is not removed
Chronic InfectionType of Persistent infection, disease, damage to host (Ex: Hep B/C)
Latent InfectionType of Persistent infection, no disease, no damage to host (Ex: Chicken pox/Varicella), may become chronic
Nosocomial InfectionHospital acquired infection - #1 = UTI due to catheters - organisms form biofilms, hard to sterilize
Koch's PostulateFind causative agent of disease
Steps of Koch's Postulate1) Isolate CA from affected organism, 2) inoculate CA into healthy organism, 3) Observe organisms for similar effects, 4) Reisolate CA and compare isolates
Ways fungi can affect humans1) Asthma attacks via inhalation of fungal spores, 2) Some molds release toxins (Aflatoxin from Aspergillus), 3) Molds and yeasts can cause disease (mycoses), 4) Economic impact
Type of mycoses1) Dermatophytes, group of molds that cause infection of skin, nail, hair by metabolizing keratin; Rx: antifungal cream/shampoo, 2) Skin/mucous membrane infections caused by yeast CANDIDA ALBICANS (normal flora in vagina, mouth, intestines); diseases: oral thrush, vaginal yeast infections, diaper area skin infection - dimorphic yeast - can exist as unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (mold - pseudohyphae) in human host
Algae PathogensRelease toxins (algal toxins), Ex: Dinaflagellates - type of algae that releases toxins
Types of Algae toxins1) Breve toxin - ENTERIC toxin, G. breve; 2) Saxitoxin - NEUROTOXIN; disease - parasitic shellfish poisoning - red tide - algal bloom -> High level of toxins
Protozoan Pathogen - CystCyst formers (which turn in tropozoite) - Toxoplasma gondii, disease = toxoplasmosis from zoonotic transmission by cats - bad for pregnant/fetus/immunocompromised
Protozoan Pathogen - Non-cyst formerPlasmodium species (i.e. P. malariae) - affect RBC + liver cells - transmission by vector
Path of plasmodium1) plasmodium enters human by mosquito bite - SPOROZOITE (motile) stage 2) sporozoite travels to liver to infect cells - produce MEROZOITEE (non-motile) 3) Merozoite enters RBC and circulates to further develop 4) Merozoite enter mosquitoes thru bite, complete cycle in gut