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mikenakhla's version from 2016-05-19 21:43



Question Answer
• This type of hernia may descend into the scrotumindirect inguinal
• Which hernias are located about the inguinal ligament? Below?above is inguinal, below is femoral.
• Reactive arthritis sx. Treatment?urethritis, asymmetric oligoarthritis, conjunctivitis. Can also have enthesitis (tendon pain) and lesions on the skin. Treat with NSAIDs
• Common cause of chronic knee pain in young people. Worse with climbing stairs and is progressive. What is this and what exam maneuver diagnoses it?patellofemoral syndrome, compress patella while extending the knee
• Treat acute gout with ___, prevent with _________colchicine, allopurinol
• Treatment of SCFE?surgical pinning of slipped epiphysis in order to lessen the risk of avascular necrosis of the femoral head
• IV drug users, sickle cell, and immunosupressed patients are at high risk for this. Tenderness to gentle percussion of vertebraosteomyelitis, fever is not a consistent finding
• Which nerve provides sensation to the medial leg and and thigh as well as innervates muscles responsible for knee extention and hip flexion?femoral nerve
• This nerve supplies muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh and leg, which control flexion of the knee and plantar flexion of the foot. This nerve also provides sensation to the leg besides the medial side and the plantar foottibial nerve
• This nerve provides sensation over the medial thigh and motor function is adduction of the thighobturator
• This nerve provides sensation to the dorsum of the footdeep peroneal.
• Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip most commonly affecting boys ages 5-7Legg-Calve-perthes disease
• Hypodense lesion on x ray looking like a bone cancer in a young kid. Pain is worse at night and not related to physical activity and relieved by NSAIDs osteoid osteoma. This is benign.
• Onion skinning on X rayEwing sarcoma
• Sunburst pattern and codman's triangle on X rayosteosarcoma
• Traction apophysitis of tibial tubercle akaosgood-schlatter disease
• Overuse injury commonly seen in runners, anterior knee pain that worsens while walking down steps or hills.patellofemeral stress syndrome
• How does patellar tendonitis differ from osgood-schlatter disease?tendonitis has point tenderness at inferrior pole of the patella
• Gold standard for diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophygenetic testing looking for dystrophin gene.
• Bilateral calf hyertrophy and gower sign, what is this and how is it transmitted?X linked recessive, this is DMD
• Nerve injury associated with humeral fractures or improperly fitted crutchesradial, wrist drop and sensory loss on posterior arm/forearm and lateral dorsal hand
• Claw hand and some hand sensory loss as well as intrinsic hand muscle weaknessulnar nerve damage
• Patients with longstanding ankylosing spondylitis can develop bone loss due to increased osteoclast activity b/c of chronic inflammation. They are at increased risk ofvertebral fractures, often occuring with minimal trauma
• Reperfusion of a limb following ischemia for more than 4-6 hours, then pain, what is this?compartment syndrome b/c edema that forms with reperfusion
• Stress fractures typically don't show up on X ray with initial evaluationJust know that
• Pathophysiology of carpal tunnel?deposition of protein complexes within median nerve
• Sclerotic cortical lesions on imaging of bone, pain worse at night and unrelated to activity and quickly relieved by NSAIDsosteoid osteoma
• Pain and swelling of joint. "Soap bubble" appearance on X ray with osteolytic lesions in epiphyseal regions of long bones and involves distal femur and proximal tibia around knee joint commonlygiant cell tumor of bone. Benign but locally aggressive.
• Most common cause of hip pain in children and is treated with rest and ibuprofen. No lab abnormalities or fevertransient synovitis
• Infant or child lifted or pulled by hand/arm. Keeps arm pronated and refuses to supinate. What is this and how do you treat it?radial head subluxation. Reduce it by forearm hyperprotination or supination plus flexion and then they'll be gucci
• Enthesitis is common withankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthropathies
• "step off" palpable at lumbosacral areaspondylolisthesis, developmental disorder characterized by slip of vertebrae forward manifesting as back pain and urinary incontinence
• Treatment for paget's disease?bisphosphonates
• Asymptomatic isolated alk phos in an old personpaget's
• Patient with a history of skin infection, presenting with fever and abdominal pain radiating to the groin. What is this and what do you do?this is likely a psoas abscess, gets worse with extention, better with flexion (psoas sign). CT scan and drainage/abx
• Trauma, then negative x rays but the patient is in pain, what should you assume?that there is a fracture and get follow up x rays a week or two after if symptoms persist.
• What should you do for suspected hip fracture in an old person, but negative x rays?CT or MRI of the hip
• Pulses with compartment syndrome?USUALLY palpable
• Elbow dislocation/fracture can damage this nerveulnar, can cause "claw hand"
• Stress fracture vs fatigue fracture?stress fracture is repeated motion or use that breaks it down. Fatigue fracture is when you have abnormal stressors and normal bone (eg military, marathon runners). Treatment is the same, rest to allow healing and prevent progression
• Treatment of herniated discs?rest and analgesics resolves 90% of cases. Steroid injection maybe, surgery if all that fails or significant neurological deficit is seen
• Puncture wound through tennis shoe then osteomyelitis, what organism do you think of ?pseduomonas
• Most common causes of septic arthritisstaph aureus and neisseria in young sexually active people
• Post trauma, pain, swelling, signs of autonomic dysfunction (sweating/dryness or alternating warmth and coolness). Minor touch triggers severe pain. What is this?reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Sympathetic nerve block relieves symptoms and is diagnostic. It can be repeated for therapy
• Barlow and ortalani signs?Congenital hip dysplasia (aka development dysplasia of the hip). Hip is dislocatable (barlow) then re-located (ortalani). Treat with splint or observation
• Short male with delayed bone age and pain, thigh, knee or groin pain and a limp. What is this and how do you treat itLegg Calve Perthes disease, treat with orthoses. Caused by avascular necrosis of femoral head that kills bone and prevents it from growing properly
• SCFE or legg calve perthes, which is usually older?SCFE. Also usually a fat kid
• Osteochondritis of the tibial tubercle akaosgood schlatter disease. Treat with rest, NSAIDs
• Acute pain and swelling of the midline sacrococcygeal skin and subcutaneous tissue. Usually at coccyxpilonidal disease
• When do you screen for osteoporosis?65 or earlier with risk factors. It's a one time test DEXA scan
• What do you do with scaphoid injury?cast and x ray. Repeat x rays if negative in 7-10 days
• Mutation in ehler's danlos?collagen. Scoliosis, joint laxity, aortic dilation, they are not tall or have lens dislocation like marfan's
• Medial pain below the knee that shows nothing on x raypes anserinus pain syndrome
• Heat exhaustion vs heat stroke?heat exhaustion due to inadequate fluid/salt replacement. Heat stroke is due to impaire thermoregulation and has CNS dysfunction

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