merovich's version from 2015-09-02 21:22


Question Answer
Hematoxylinbinds phosphate in DNA, sulfate in cartilage
Eosinbinds amine groups in proteins
colchicinestops vesicular transport by disrupting MT assembly
Cytokinesisactin forms "purse string" with myosin to constrict and cleave cells
separation of chromosomesMT important for mitosis and meiosis to separate chromatids
somitesfrom paraxial mesoderm; dermatome (dermis), myotome (skeletal muscle), sclerotome (axial skeleton)
lateral plate mesodermforms splanchnic/somatic mesoderm -> mesenchyme
invades somatic lateral plate mesodermSensory/melanocytes from neural crest, motor from neural tube, vessels and myoblasts from other mesoderm,
osteogenesis imperfectamutation in gene for type I collagen
joint formationfrom cell death and matrix changes within cartilaginous rods
Myotomeepimere - intrinsic mm. of back; hypomere - all other postcranial mm.
hypomeresplits into dorsal and ventral muscle masses
nerve development in limbmotor axons first, sensory use motor for guidance (all from ventral rami)
HOXA13short digits, fused carpals
methyloxyethanolindustrial; regression of AER = syndactyly
Cadmiumdamages DNA in embryonic cells = syndactyly, polydactyly, hypertrophy
intracellular collagen synthesisNucleus -> RER -> golgi -> secretory vesicle
collagen in RERmakes alpha chains; hydroxylation, glycosylation = pre-procollagen; triple helix = procollagen
Extracellular collagen synthesiscleavage of carboxy and amino end = collagen; polymerization into fibrils
elastic fiberselastin and fibrillin
Hydroxylation of collagenneeds vitamin C; on specific prolines and lysines; occurs in rER
reticular fibersType III collagen, form fine, supportive meshwork between cells in liver, spleen, lymph nodes
Type VII collagenanchors basement membrane (type IV) to reticular fibers (type III)
elastic fibersmicrofibrils of fibrillin embedded in elastin core (glycoprotein)
Marfan Syndromemutation to fibrillin gene; often aortic rupture as arteries need elastic fibers
proteoglycansproteins w/ covalently linked GAGs (lots); for support and lubrication; aggrecan, syndecan
Glycosaminoglycansnegative (blue staining); GAGs, long, unbranches polysaccarides of repeating disaccharide units
MMPsmatrix metaloproteases, collagenases and gelatinases to digest ECM; secreted by pathogen
glycoproteins protein part more important; for attachment and migration of cells along ECM
Fibronectinglycoprotein; helps mediate cell adhesion and migration
Lamininglycoprotein; promotes adhesion of cells to basal laminae
integrinstransmembrane glycoprotein that binds to fibronectin, laminin, and collagens in ECM
Loose CTmore cells, few fibers, no bundles; for diffusion and immune battleground
Dense CTfew cells, lots of fibers, thick type I collagen fibers
irregular dense CTrandom bundles of type I collagen; dermis of skin, capsules around organs
regular dense CTparallel bundles type I collagen; tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses

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