Schramm suggested that communication was a two way process where both sender & receiver takes it in turns to send and receive messages
the model explains the communication cycle - showing the process a message goes through from a marketer
often we use the drip model (differentiate, remind, inform, persuade) when we think about processes
the person who sends the message
person who CONVERTS message to be send into codes
person who GETS the MESSAGE sent by encoder and CONVERTS it into a language which is understandable to them
person who tries to UNDERSTAND and ANALYSE the message - message received after interpretation
person who GETS the message - he/she decodes and interprets the message (same person as interpreter)
is the DATA SENT by the sender and info that the receiver gets
process of RESPONDING to the received message by the receiver
CHANNEL used to send the message
interference/INTERRUPTIONS caused during the process - also caused when the intended meaning of the message sent by the sender is misinterpreted by the receiver.
Evaluate the purpose of schramms model
the model shows how meaning is transferred from one person to the other - communication is seen as a never ending process as each person is the sender and receiver so there is an interpretation of the message each turn.
feedback is also important in order to let sender know if receiver interpreted the message correctly - message is useless if receiver doesn't understand so feedback is different from expected.
A person is talking to someone who does not understand English. The person codes the message and writes the message in the form of language. The other person won't be able to decode it as the person cannot understand the language. The feedback is immediately passed to the sender acknowledging that the receiver hasn't interpreted the message as required making feedback an important component in the communication.
Toyota Prado GX - banner misinterpreted - had a despotic manner - you HAVE to pay respect to it - used stone carved lion resembles invasion by troops WW2
Advantages of the model are..
circular comms give opportunity to both parties to give their opinion - noise helps to understand the issues that can occur during interpretation - concept of interpretation makes communication effective
Disadvantage of the model are...
model cannot deal with multiple levels of comms - messages sent and received may be misinterpreted - there can only be two sources of communicating
newspaper, tv, radio, direct mail, magazine, internet
ADVANTAGES of advertising are
mass appeal, cost efficient if reaching mass audience, conveys rich info
LIMITATIONS of advertising are
credibility issue, high costs, little feedback
CHALLENGES of advertising
difficult to measure effectiveness, long time effect (e.g. banner vs online search)
(+) flexible, timeless, good local market coverage (-) short life, poor reproduction quality
How do we choose the advertising media?
We base it on the criteria of 1- reach and selectivity 2- cost and 3- information
What are the styles of advertising?
informative, persuasive, reminder advertising (reminds about product), comparative advertising (mentioning competitors name to show why they are lower in rank (inferior))
Advertising and creative appeals
Advertising should give off positive and negative appeals e.g. fear, guilt and shame (banner tired of being ugly? hit the gym OR humour, love, pride, joy (e.g. johnson and johnson advert mother loving babies)
track public attitudes, identify issues that may elicit public concern and create and maintain positive relationship between a firm and its stakeholders - communicating through media directly or indirectly
ADVANTAGES to PR..
CHALLENGES of PR...
different to control
Example of PR in action...
Tesco horse meat scandal - tesco will reduce outsourcing - refund customers - letter of apology to public, reassurance and help offered - their action to prevent it
Methods of PR
write news press, featured articles, white papers, product placement, appearances, event sponsorship (e.g. scholarship program & tesco sponsers cancer research race for life)
businesses use people (sales force) to sell the product after meeting face to face with the customer. - product is promoted through specialist product knowledge, appearance and attitude - they encourage customer to buy
ADVANTAGES of personal selling are..
focuses less on sales and more on developing long term PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS with buyers - mose PRECISE form of communication - it is the frontline knowledge as one of the most important assets of the firm
DRAWBACKS of Personal selling are..
high cost per contact
Personal selling is useful for..
higher involvement and complex purchases e.g. B2B
hospital equipment manufacturer requires their sales rep to sell equipment to medical practices & food producer needs sales reps to meet with wholesale/retail buyers