Moving on to Micro E4

lunalovegood's version from 2015-12-09 01:50

Section 1

Question Answer
Inborn independent of previous experienceInnate
Natural exposure to foreign agentNaturally acquired - active
Placental transferNaturally acquired - passive
Immune cells in ColostrumNaturally acquired - adoptive
Specific immunizationArtificially acquired - active
Administration of preformed antibodiesArtificially acquired - passive
Bone marrow transplantArtificially acquired - adoptive

Section 2

Question Answer
Neutralizing, opsonization, complement activation, receptor-mediated are all ___ effector mechanisms.antibody-mediated
Direct cytotoxicity, cytokines, regulatory are all ___ effector mechanismscell-mediated
T/F - Cytokines are polypeptides.T
Cytokines act ___ (locally, at a distance)locally
T/F - Cytokines are part of innate and adaptive immunity.T
Cytokines have ___ (low, high) molecular weight.low
T/F - Cytokines kind bind to receptor on the cell that produced it.T
T/F - Balance of TH1 and TH2 determines response to disease. T (for example, leprosy - Tuberculoid (TH1 -CMI response - pt lives) Lepromatous (TH2 - humoral response - pt dies)

Section 3

Question Answer
IFNaearly mediator
IFN-betaearly mediator
IL-2early and late mediator
IFN-gammaearly and late mediator
IL-4early and late mediate
IL-5early and late mediator
GM-CSFmaintenance of cytokines
IL-3maintenance of cytokines
IL-7maintenance of cytokines
TYPE - IL-2Type 1
TYPE - IFN-gammaType 1
TYPE - TNFType 1
TYPE - IL-4Type 2
TYPE - IL-5Type 2
TYPE - IL-10Type 2
TYPE - Cell-mediated Immune response (intracellular organisms)Type 1
TYPE - Humoral responseType2

Section 4

Question Answer
T/F - Bacterial septic shock - BP drops, clots form, hypoglycemia, deathT
Bacterial Septic Shock - LPS triggers result in _________ release.TNF
Bacterial Septic Shock - TNF induces ___.IL-1
Bacterial Septic Shock - TNF induces IL-1, which induces _________ and _________.IL-6 and IL-8
T/F - LPS triggers result in TNF release. TNF induces IL-1, which induces IL-6 and IL-8.T
Bacterial toxins that bridge CD4 T cell receptors and MHC class II molecules on APC's bypassing the need for antigen.Super antigens
Bacterial Toxic Shock - ____ trigger large numbers of T cells which release massive amounts of ___.superantigens, cytokines
T/F - Some cancers, like lymphoid and myeloid, secrete cytokines.T
Trypanosoma cruzi infection that results in severe immune suppression.Chagas' disease
Chagas' disease - depression of ___ RECEPTOR productionIL-2


Question Answer
We've been around 200k years. Our ancestors 6million. Dental calculus ___ years.400k
T/F - Komodo dragons have a septic bite. Lots of bacteria. Will kill.T
Bacteria history goes back...3.5 billion years
T/F - Dental tartar was discovered in 1683.T
T/F - In 1763, Linnaeus was unable to differentiate bacteria, so he classified them all in the order Chaos.T
T/F - It took 200 years, between Leeuwenkoek discovering bacteria to Koch and Pasteur proving that they cause disease.T
How many cells you got?10^14
___% of your cells are YOU YOU. _________% are bacteria.10%, 90% (23k genes vs. 1mil+ genes)
T/F - Host lifestyle/diet, pathobiology, environment, immune system, genotype, physiology and transient community members all affect the core human microbiome.T
T/F - Biofilms - reduced penetration of agent - novel properties of microbes growing on surfaces - antimicrobial resistance -slower growth rates.T
Some specific genetics mechanisms biofilm bacteria have are...periplasmic glucans and efflux pumps.
Name 3 benefits of biofilm community living.concentration of nutrients, negative charge of biofilm, nutrient exchange of ions
T/F - Nearly all bacterium live with and depend on other microorganisms for energy, carbon and other nutrients.T
T/F - Celluolytic turn cellulose to sugar, fermenters give off organic acids, CO2, and hydrogen gas, then methanogens or sulfate reducers use that for energy. :T
Question Answer
Transfer of free DNAtransformation
Plasmid transfer between bacteriaconjugation
DNA transfer via viral deliverytransduction
At a concentration of about ___ the pathogenic bacterial growth hits stage 4.10^4
Cheeks, lips, palate - microflora low or high diversity?low
Tongue and teeth - microflora low or high diversity?high
Teeth have many ___ anaerobes.obligate
Tongue have ___ anaerobes.obligate and facultative
Cheeks, lips, palate have ___ anaerobes.facultative
Predominant bacteria in cheeks, lips, palate?streptococcus spp.
Veillonella atypical, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum reservoir.tongue
We're like 35-36 degrees C. A perio pocket with inflammation can be _________ degrees C!!!39
T/F - gingival crevice can become alkali during inflammation.T (as high as 7.8)
Name 2 acid sensitive bacteria.S. sanguis, S. gordonii
T/F - Milk proteins and casein can absorb onto tooth surface and reduce the adherence of S. mutans.T
There are ___ prokaryote species present in the human oral cavity.700
T/F - about ___% of oral cavity bacteria are officially named.49% (17% cultivated and unnamed, 34% are known only as uncultivated phylotypes.)
T/F - There are more bacteria in your mouth than there are people in the world.T


Early or late coloniser?
Question Answer
S. gordoniiearly
S. oralisearly
S. sanguinisearly
S. mitisearly
P. gingivalis, H. parainfluenzae, P. acnes, V. atypica, and A naeslundiiearly (but later early.)
Fusobacterium nucleatumlate (the turning point)
A. actinomycetemcomitanslate
Treponema sp.late
H. pylorilate


Device or Tissue Infections
Question Answer
Ventricular derivationsdevice
Contact lensesdevice
Endotracheal tubesdevice
Central vascular cathetersdevice
Prosthetic cardiac valves, pacemakers, vascular graftsdevice
Tissue fillers, breast implantsdevice
Peripheral vascular cathetersdevice
Urinary cathetersdevice
Orthopedic implants and prosthetic jointsdevice
Chronic otitis media, chronic sinusitistissue
Chronic tonsillitis, dental plaque, chronic laryngitistissue
Lung infection in cystic fibrosistissue
Kidney stonestissue
Biliary tract infectionstissue
Chronic woundstissue


Question Answer
Cellular barrier to penetrating bacteria and/or antigensIntra-epithelial lymphocytes and Langerhans cells
Prevents microbial adhesion and metabolismsIgA
Prevents microbial adhesion. Opsonins and complement activators.IgG, IgA, IgM
Activates neutrophils.complement
Phagocytosis.Neutrophils/ macrophages