Motor Development Midterm

anskorczewski12's version from 2017-05-10 01:59


Question Answer
ability to resist movment stability
ability of object or person to maintain equilibriumbalance (increasing stability helps to ensure balance)
types of feedbackintrinsic vs. extrinsic (knowledge of results vs. knowledge of performance) and summary or instantaneous
how to increase stabilityincrease base of support and lower center of gravity
how to increase balanceincrease stability, strength, coordination, and proprioception
types of infantile reflexesprimative, postural reactions, and locomotor reflexes
types of practice(depends on their ability to handle and reimbursement); blocked vs random, constant vs. variable, or whole vs. part
motor milestones.(see notes)
physiological flexion diminishes...around 1 to 2 months, before postural control (then head righting is seen in prone and tipped); still asymmetrical
importance of extension and flexion in 1 to 2 monthsflexions develops ROM and movement; extension develops into postural tone and stability
labyrinthine righting reactionwhen supported upright, head stays upright when tilted (2-12 mo)
vertical rightingmove the midline of body into alignment with center of gravity
moro reflexwhen supine, change in head position causes arms and legs to extend then flex (until 3 mo)
babinskitoes extend (until 4 mo)
types of primitive reflexestonic (in response to position of head and trunk, stops movement, helps with stability) vs. phasic (movement in response to stimuli (develops into mobility)
rootingstroke cheek and turn and open mouth (until 1 year)
atnrwhen supine, turn head and get extension on same side and flexion on opposite (until 4 mo)
derotative rightingwhen supine, helps to roll (from 4 mo--)
optical righting reactionsvisual feedback is used to adjust and orient the head and eyes with the horizon
primary standing/automatic stepping diminish at...end of 1 mo
fine motor development in 1 to 2 mounaware of hands and objects in hands at 1 mo, at 2, more awareness (prone) take more weight into forearms, begin shifting weight to free up extremity; (supine) random arm mvoement greater ROM, introduction of visual stimuli
posture control of 3-6 mo. (supine) antigravity movements, hands to midline; primitive reflexes diminishing (prone) increase extension, symmetrical posutral activity, greater activity--lifting head, forearm support, extend arm support
3-6 mo. gross motor control(supine) independently lift head, flex against gravity, extension against a surface
what age do babies roll from supine to sidelying4 mo
wt. bearing on upper extremities; ability of wt. shift begins; accidental rolling to supine3-5 mo. (prone)
hold head upright in supportive sit3 mo
begins to prop on elbow, shift upper body wt., push down with hands (but can't wt. bear to reach)4 mo
begins to unweight arm for reaching (which takes great effort)5 mo
mature landau reaction present at6 mo
forward protective extension begins at6 mo
reach patterns......(see notes)
grasp patterns......(see notes)
release patterns......(see notes)
protective forward extension at...6 mo (in supported seat)
protective side and back extension at...7-9 mo.
types of tasksclosed vs. open
four factors that influence motor learning1.stages of learning 2.type of task 4.practice
2 ecological perspectives1.dynamical systems approach (contraints act as functional units enabling you to move; 2. perception action approach (perception and movement must occur together-has affordance and body scaling)
affordancedescribes function of environment object to individual (relevant to size and shape) I perceive by abilities in relation to the object
rate controllers of early walking1.balance 2.strength 3.coordination
rate controllers of later walking1.structural constraints (decline muscle mass, OA) 2.accommodate pain or changes in balance 3.functional constraints (fear and balance)
what drives infants from random arm movements to reaching?vision
learning to control reach is, more than anything else, a problem with...learning to control the arm
string one bead20 mo.
holds crayons with thumb and fingers24 mo.
functional use of drawing and cutting tools and tripod grip2-4 years
dynamic tripod grasp and mature use of scissors5 years
sensation vs. perceptionsensation is neural activity triggered by stimulus, and perception includes multiple processes in CNS (selection, process, organize, integrate)
difference between constraints and rate controlercontroller is developing as skill is, constraint prohibits
running starts6 to 7 months after walking (start with stability over mobility)
order of new skills after jumpinggalloping (around 2-3), sliding, then skipping (around 4-7)
learning to reach is, more than anything else...a problem of learning to control the arm (not visual problem)
development of acuity20/30 at 5 and 20/20 at 10
handedness is established around4 years
The ability to maintain posture against gravity while stabilizing against the forces that result from movement is known as: postural stability/control

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