icer215's version from 2016-08-25 00:34

Section 1

Question Answer
Instinctsbehaviors that are unlearned and present in fixed patterns throughout a species. An example is imprinting in chicks, who learn to follow objects or organisms that are present when they hatch.
Drivesis an urge originating from a physiological discomfort such as hunger, thirst, or sleepiness.
Negative Feedback Systemsworks by maintaining stability or homeostasis; a system produces a product or end result, which feeds back to stop the system and maintain the product or end result within tightly controlled boundaries
Arousal behaviors are motivated by a desire to achieve an optimum level
Motivation is influenced by drives, instincts, feedback, arousal, and needs.
NeedsGive purpose and direction to behavior ➙ toward a certain goal
Drive Reduction Theorysuggests that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce that need be engaging in some behavior.
Incentive Theory are external stimuli, objects, and events in the environment that either help induce or discourage certain behaviors. positive or negative
Abraham Maslowsought to explain human behavior by creating a hierarchy of needs.motivated to satisfy higher-level needs once certain lower-level needs have been met.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needsAbram Maslow proposed that hierarchy of needs motivate people
Maslow’s hierarchyMost basic level = physiological needs, Second level = social interaction, Third level = respect from self/others, Fourth level = self-actualization. Argued that when lower needs are fulfilled, people care about higher needs
hypothalamus is the primary control center for detecting changes in temperature and receives input from skin receptors.
hypothalamus determines that the body is hotit causes vasodilation and sweating
hypothalamus determines that the body is coldit causes vasoconstriction and shivering

Section 2

Question Answer
intake of fluidsis stimulated by specialized osmoreceptors in the brain that detect dehydration.
hunger helps regulatethe intake of nutrients into the body.
body temp it is controlledby the hypothalamus, which rec info from the stomach, intestines, and liver, as well as through the monitoring of blood glucose.
lateral hypothalamusbrings on hunger
ventromedial hypothalamusdepresses hunger
ghrelinreleased by the stomach and pancreas, heightens the sensation of hunger
leptina hormone released by white adipose tissue reduces hunger
sex hormonesare responsible for the activation of sexual behavior
EatingThe brain, the digestive system, and hormones are all involved in regulating hunger motivation. The lateral and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in involved in signaling hunger
The ventromedial nucleusof the hypothalamus regulates satiety or fullness
Hormonal regulationby leptin and insulin also involves in digestion/food absorption
estrogrn and testosteronecontrol sexual drives to minimal extent in the short-term, long-term behavior can be guided by sex hormones.
serotoninwhich has a calming effect
Drug and alcohol useInfluenced by genetics, withdrawals, and biochemical reactions such as dopamine in the limbic system
Sociocultural factors in regulation of these motivational processesEating, Sexual, Drug and alcohol use
EatingRegulated by time, desire, appeal, occasions, and availability
SexualRegulated by age, culture, desires, emotions, and etc.
Drug and alcohol useInfluenced by curiosity, emotions control, stress, level of self-esteem