behaviors that are unlearned and present in fixed patterns throughout a species. An example is imprinting in chicks, who learn to follow objects or organisms that are present when they hatch.
is an urge originating from a physiological discomfort such as hunger, thirst, or sleepiness.
Negative Feedback Systems
works by maintaining stability or homeostasis; a system produces a product or end result, which feeds back to stop the system and maintain the product or end result within tightly controlled boundaries
behaviors are motivated by a desire to achieve an optimum level
is influenced by drives, instincts, feedback, arousal, and needs.
Give purpose and direction to behavior ➙ toward a certain goal
Drive Reduction Theory
suggests that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce that need be engaging in some behavior.
are external stimuli, objects, and events in the environment that either help induce or discourage certain behaviors. positive or negative
sought to explain human behavior by creating a hierarchy of needs.motivated to satisfy higher-level needs once certain lower-level needs have been met.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Abram Maslow proposed that hierarchy of needs motivate people
Most basic level = physiological needs, Second level = social interaction, Third level = respect from self/others, Fourth level = self-actualization. Argued that when lower needs are fulfilled, people care about higher needs
is the primary control center for detecting changes in temperature and receives input from skin receptors.