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ibench85lbs's version from 2016-07-18 01:07

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From Step 1 Micro (by obinno59):
Question Answer
Chocolate agarN. men.
Lactose fermentersE. coli & Klebsiella and rest of enterics except (Macconkee)(Excepss)Salmonella, shigella, pseudomonoas
Test to differentiate shigella and salmonella-Neither ferment lactose
-Salmonella DOES produce H2S(think of it as burnt fuel) (but shigella does not)
Encapsulated bacteriaSHiNss
-S. pneumoniae
-H. flu
- N. men.
-Salmonella
-GBS
Silver stain(3)-Legionella
-PCP

-& other fungi
Ziehl-Neelsenacid fast
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From OS-Cardio (by obinno59):
Question Answer
Vasculitis of graft cells and Interstitial lymphocytic infiltration-Acute(weeks)
-Reversible with immun suppress.
T cell and AB mediated-Months to years(Chronic)
-Obliterative vascular fibrosis
-MHC-nonself appears as MHC self with antigen
Macupapular rash, jaundice, H/S, diarrhea.

Seen in which types?
G-vs -H
-Length varies
-Bone and Liver transplant(RICH in lymphoctes)
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From OS-Cardio (by obinno59):
Question Answer
The order at which these enzymes rise during MI(best enzyme to use for Dx)

AST, CK-MB, LDH, Trop I
1. Troponin I (6hrs)
2.CK-MB(8-24hrs)
3. AST when CK-MB begins to decline(On CK's ASS)
4. LDH(2-7days)(Last )
Bradycardia TxAtropine

Or DE and EPI for Atropine resistant cases
Drug interaction btw Digoxin and Quinidine

sx?
Digoxin levels will INCREASE

Sx:
-GI
-Visual
-CV
*premature ventricular contraction
* AV nodal block
*Slow Ventricular response
(DQ)
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From OS-Cardio (by obinno59):
Question Answer
Tanner stages1) prepubertal, elevation of only the papilla of the breast, fine villus hair

2)Begin puberty, palpable breast buds, enlarged areola, minimal course hair

3) Elevation of breast contour with areolar enlargement

4) 2ndary mound on the breast (areola)

5)Adult breast contour, recession of the areola to general contour of breast
Would you give a person who has WPW Procainamide?Yes, because it does NOT slow down conductance thru AV node= decrease chance of deviating towards accessory pathway and leading to V-fib(Like: Beta blocker, Adenosine, Verapamil, Digoxin, )(Bad AV Diffusion )
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From VF, AB targets, Facial (by obinno59):
Question Answer
What side does the Basolateral surface face?Sinusoids
Zone 3-Affected by ischemia
-Contains P450 system
*Most sensitive to toxic injury
*Alcoholic hep
-BF from Zone 1 to Zone 3(opposite for bile flow))
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From VF, AB targets, Facial (by obinno59):
Question Answer
UMN lesion Defin.lesion btw the cortex(via the corticobulbar tract) and the facial nulceus(Before the "Crossover")
UMN sxCONTRA paralysis of LOWER face only. Upper face= B/L UMN innervation

-Left pic. Left UMN lesion
LMN sx IPSI paralysis of Upper AND lower face

-Right side = Right LMN lesion
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From VF, AB targets, Facial (by obinno59):
Question Answer
What factors affect the Output to ocular muscle?Vascular d/s
(ex. diabetes: glucose->sorbitol)
-decrease diffusion to interior
Sx of Ocular muscle output compromise-"Down and Out" gaze=still have CN 4&6
-ptosis
What factors affect the Parasympathetic output?1st to be affected by compression:
-PCOM berry aneurysm
-Uncal herniation
Sx of Parasympathetic ouput compromise-Use pupillary light reflex to assess
"Blown pupil"
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From VF, AB targets, Facial (by obinno59):
Question Answer
A-Imipenum
-Cephelosporin
-Aztreonam
-Penicillin
B-Bacitran
-Vancomycin
C-Sulfanimide
-Trimethroprim
DRifampin(mRNA)
E-Fluroquinolones
F-Metroniazole
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From OS-Cardio (by obinno59):
Question Answer
MCA-CONTRA Upper limb(Motor and sensory)
-Wernicke's and Broca's area
Anterior cerebral arteryCONTRA Lower limbs (Motor and sensory)
Lateral striates(off MCA)-Go to Striatum and internal capsule
-CONTRA hemiplegia=2ndary HTN(Lacunar infarct)=bc they are small.
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From VF, AB targets, Facial (by obinno59):
Question Answer
ACentral sco-toma(macular degen)
CBi-temporal hemianopia

DRight Homo-nymous heminopia
FRLQ anopia(Left parietal lesion, MCA)
GRight heminopia w/ macular sparing(PCA)

-Macula=B/L projection to occiput
-After Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

HDorsal optic radiation=SUPERIOR retina.

-Shortest path to internal capsule
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From OS-Cardio (by obinno59):
Question Answer
COpthalmic artery
DMiddle cerebral artery
GPosterior cerebral
HSuperior cerebellar
IAnterior inferior cerebellar
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From Quick review 7 (by obinno59):
Question Answer
What is the 2-hit hypothesisBoth copies of p53 or both of Rb must be knocked out for tumor formation
2 hit specifically for Rb geneEither:
-Both hits are somatic=unilateral retinoblastoma
-2nd hit is somatic=Germline mutation in familial Rb=B/L Rb and osteosarcoma

2-hit specifically for P53-Germline mutation=Li-Fraumeni syndrome(2nd hit somatic)
*propensity to develop multiple types of carcinomas and sarcomas
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From Quick review 7 (by obinno59):
Question Answer
Role of p53-p53=regulates progression of the cell cycle from G1 to s phase.

-This occurs during DNA injury, if repair can't be done p53 induces apoptosis.

-p53=regulates BAX=disrupts Bcl2

-Bcl2=prevent apop in NL cells; promote apop in mutated cells
Role of RbRb holds E2F-TF, which is necessary for transition to the S phase.

E2F is released from Rb when Rb is phosphorylated by cyclin D/cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK4) complex.

-Rb mutation=constitutively free E2F=uncontrolled cell growth
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From OS-Cardio (by obinno59):
Question Answer
If a pt comes to you w/ HA and heart palp and he's currently on digoxin and furosemide

ECG= flattenned T-waves and irreg rhythm


What can u give him to treat it?
Pt has hyPOkalemic metab alkalosis= S/e of thiazide and Loops

Tx: give Spironolactone
Tx for RF. Acute vs ChronicAcute: Penicillin and salicylates

Chronic: valve repair
The order at which these enzymes rise during MI(best enzyme to use for Dx)

AST, CK-MB, LDH, Trop I
1. Troponin I (6hrs)
2.CK-MB(8-24hrs)
3. AST when CK-MB begins to decline(On CK's ASS)
4. LDH(2-7days)(Last )
Bradycardia TxAtropine

Or DE and EPI for Atropine resistant cases
memorize

 

From OS-Cardio (by obinno59):
Question Answer
Tanner stages1) prepubertal, elevation of only the papilla of the breast, fine villus hair

2)Begin puberty, palpable breast buds, enlarged areola, minimal course hair

3) Elevation of breast contour with areolar enlargement

4) 2ndary mound on the breast (areola)

5)Adult breast contour, recession of the areola to general contour of breast
Would you give a person who has WPW Procainamide?Yes, because it does NOT slow down conductance thru AV node= decrease chance of deviating towards accessory pathway and leading to V-fib(Like: Beta blocker, Adenosine, Verapamil, Digoxin, )(Bad AV Diffusion )
If a man was stabbed and he experiened a R-sided hydro-pneumothorax with these levels:

RBC=1000 cells
WBC=50
TAG=500
Cultures =neg

what would you suspect was hit ?
The HIGH TAG suggest Thoracic duct.

-Drains upper left and B/L LE vs the upper right= right lymphatic duct


-Emptying into the LEFT internal jugular vein
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From Quick review 7 (by obinno59):
Question Answer
30sA=aminoglycosides,

T=tetracyclines
50sC=chloramphenicol

E=erythromycin (macrolides),

LL=Linezolid,Lincosemides(ex. Clindamycin, lincomycin)(derived from streptomyces)
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From Quick review 7 (by obinno59):
Question Answer Column 3
Brain-Lung
-Breast
-Skin(melanoma)
-Kidney(RCC)
-GI tract tumor
Lots of
Bad
Stuff
Kills
Glia
Liver-Colon
-Stomache
-Pancreas
-Breast
-Lung
Cancer
Sometimes
Penetrates
Benign
Lung
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From Quick review 7 (by obinno59):
Question Answer
BosentanTx of Pulm HTN. Competively antag endothelin-1 receptors decreasing PVR(Go-sentan!!!)
Dextro-methor-phanAntitussive=cough suppressant (antag NMDA glutamate receptors); mild opiate effects; give Naloxone for OD
MethacholineMuscarinic receptor agonist; asthma challenge testing
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From Quick review 7 (by obinno59):
Question Answer
CCromolyn: Mast cell stabilizer
D-B-agonist
-Theophylline=PDE inhib=raise cAMP
-Muscarinic antag
GAdenosine
HTheophylline: cardio tox, Neuro tox. Also blocks Adenosine
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From Quick review 7 (by obinno59):
Question Answer
D, E,FNSAIDS, COXIB, Glucocorticoids
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Quick Review 8 (by obinno59)
Renal phys-Ka...9-12 (by obinno59)