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Miscarriage

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oelomar's version from 2018-11-29 15:05

Section 1

Question Answer
How does a complete miscarriage present?All products of conception are expelled. Pain ceases but spotting may persist.
How is a complete miscarriage diagnosed?Cervical os is closed; ultrasound shows an empty uterus. Products of conception are submitted to pathology to confirm foetal tissue.
How does an incomplete miscarriage present?Mild cramping and bleeding; some products of conception expelled. Visible tissue in the vagina or endocervical canal.
How is an incomplete miscarriage diagnosed?Cervical os is open; ultrasound reveals retained fetal tissue.
How is an incomplete miscarriage managed?Dilation and curettage to remove remaining products of conception and to control bleeding. Haemodynamic stabilisation for heavy bleeding.
How does a threatened miscarriage present?No products of conception have been expelled. Uterine bleeding is present and and abdominal pain may be present. The foetus is still viable.
How is a threatened miscarriage diagnosed?Cervical os is closed; ultrasound is normal.
How is a threatened miscarriage managed?Avoid heavy activity. Pelvic rest for 24-48 hours with gradual resumption of activities, but abstinence from coitus and douching.
How does an inevitable miscarriage present?No products of conception have been expelled, but considered inevitable. Uterine bleeding and cramps are present.
How an inevitable miscarriage diagnosed?Cervical os is open.
How is an inevitable miscarriage managed?Dilation and curettage or expectant management. Surgical evacuation of uterine contents. Prostaglandin suppositories are an alternative.
How does a missed miscarriage present?Pregnancy has ceased to develop. No products of conception have been expelled; foetal tissue is retained. No uterine bleeding; symptoms of pregnancy disappear. Brownish vaginal discharge is present.
How is a missed miscarriage diagnosed?Cervical os is closed. Ultrasound reveals no foetal cardiac activity. Foetal tissue is retained.
How is a missed miscarriage managed?Dilation and curettage; prostaglandin suppositories are an alternative.
Which types of miscarriage present with an open cervical os?Incomplete miscarriage and inevitable miscarriage.
Which types of miscarriage present with a closed cervical os?Complete miscarriage, threatened miscarriage, and missed miscarriage.
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