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MINERALS

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-09-05 13:35

Section 1

Question Answer
A huge portion of Earth is made of minerals, Minerals provide nutrients to living things & Minerals are used in business/technologyWhy are minerals important to learn about?
Mineralsbuilding blocks of rocks
Granitelight-colored igneous rock
Granitefrom the slow crystallization of magma below Earth's surface.
Granite composed of quartz and feldspar with minor amounts of mica, amphiboles, and other minerals
MineralMinerals are a type of matter and we know that all matter is made of ATOMS
Substance must be solid, Substance must be naturally-occurring & not man-made, Substance must be inorganic, Substance must have a fixed chemical formula &&& Atoms that make up the substance must be arranged in orderly structureFive criterias fro a mineral to be a mineral
From magma, & From pressure/temperature2 ways that a mineral naturally occurs
Metals, Nonmetals & MetalloidsType of Atoms
Metalsshiny, solid, conduct electricity
Nonmetalsnon-shiny, often a gas, do not conduct electricity
Metalloidshave properties of both metals and nonmetals
92Of the 118 elements, only ________ are naturally occuring
Ionic bonds occur when valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another, constituting a respective gain or lose between one or the other atom.
Covalent bondsoccur when atoms from different elements share their valence electrons with one another to form a chemically stable bond
Two metals- metallic bond (sharing lots of electrons)
Two nonmetalscovalent bond (sharing pairs of electrons)
Metal and a nonmetalionic bond (charged from gaining or losing electrons)
Metalloids to metal/nonmetals/metalloidscovalent bonds (gain e to M , lose e to NM)
Halite (NaCl)The sodium donates an electron to chlorine to complete the eightelectron subshell on chlorine
CarbonThe electrons are in hybrid orbitals formed by the atoms involved as in this example: ethane
Metallic bond occurs when positive metal ions like Cu+2 or Fe+3 are surrounded by a "sea of electrons" or freely-moving valence electrons.
Olivineiron can substitute for magnesium in the crystal lattice
PolymorphsMinerals with the same chemical formula but different crystal structures
Mineraloidshomogenous solids do not have a crystal structure
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Section 2

Question Answer
Crystal Form, Hardness, Color, Streak, Luster, Breakage, Specific Gravity7 major physical properties of minerals
Colordetermined by how the crystals absorb and reflect light
ColorNot reliable characteristic to use for mineral identification
LusterRefers to how light is reflected from the surface of a mineral.
Metallic and Non-metallicTwo main types of luster
Metallic luster shiny, silvery, or having a metallike reflectance.
Non-metallic lusterresinous, translucent, pearly, waxy, greasy, silky, vitreous/glassy, dull, or earthy
Crystalline structurearrangement of atoms into orderly structures (specific shapes) threedimensional pattern
Unit cellssmall building blocks
Crystal Forms the external expression of the internally ordered arrangement of atoms.
Isometric, Tetragonal, Orthorhomic, Hexagonal, Monoclinic & TriclinicSix major crystal forms:
IsometricThree axes (x, y, z) of equal length
Isometricblock shaped with relatively similar and symmetrical faces
Isometrichas three axes all at 90° angles and all the same length.
TetragonalThree axes (x, y, z), with two of equal length and one of different length.
Tetragonalshaped like four-sided pyramids or prisms
Tetragonalaxes that are the same length lie on a horizontal plane, with the third axis at a right angle to the other two
OrthorhombicThree axes (x, y, z), all of different length.
Orthorhombicshaped like a rectangular prism with a rectangular base
Orthorhombicthree axes of different lengths and intersect at 90° angles
HexagonalThree axes of equal length, one of different length (4 axes total!=6-sided).
HexagonalHave three symmetrical axes that occur in the same plane and are all the same length
Hexagonalfourth axis may be either longer or shorter, and it intersects the other three axis at 90° angles. The sides intersect at 120 ° angles.
Monoclinicshort and stubby with tilted faces
Monoclinichas three axes that are unequal
MonoclinicTwo of the axes lie in the same plane at right angles to each other, the third axis is inclined
Triclinicthree axis which are all different lengths and all three axis intersect at angles other than 90°
BreakageHardest property to identify
Cleavage & FractureTwo types of breakage
CleavageMinerals that break in an unique and predictable way
CleavageNatural breakage
FractureMinerals break randomly
FractureIrregular breakage
Conchoidal FractureThe tendency of a mineral to break along irregular scoop-shaped fractures that are not related to weaknesses in crystal structure
Cleavagerefers to the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weakness in the chemical bonds, or along planes where bond strength is the least.
Fracturerefers to the non-planar breakage of minerals.
StreakColor of mineral as a powder left behind after it is scraped or rubbed across a porcelain streak plate
Streakmore reliable identification characteristic than the minerals perceived surface color.
HardnessThe ability of a mineral to resist abrasion or scratching on its surface.
Moh’s scale of mineral hardness which ranks 10 common minerals along a scale from 1-10
Specific Gravityweight or heaviness of a mineral, and it is expressed as the ratio of the mineral’s weight to an equal volume of water.
Taste, Magnetism & RefractionOther special characteristics of mineral
chemical composition and internal crystal structure.Minerals are classified by their _________
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
Silicates, Native Elements, Halides, Carbonates, Oxides, Sulfates, Sulfides7 Major Mineral Groups
Silicatesare composed of silicon-oxygen tetrahedrons, an arrangement which contains four oxygen atoms surrounding a silicon atom
Silicatescomprise the majority of minerals in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. Over 25% of all minerals are included in this group, with over 40% of those accounting for the most common and abundant minerals.
Native elements are minerals that are composed of a single element.
Halides consist of halogen elements, chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), fluorine (F), and iodine (I) forming strong ionic bonds with alkali and alkali earth elements sodium (Na), calcium (Ca) and potassium (K)
Carbonates are anionic groups of carbon and oxygen. Carbonate minerals result from bonds between these complexes and alkali earth and some transitional metals
Carbonateseact when exposed to hydrochloric acid. If the mineral fizzes when it comes in contact with the hydrochloric acid it contains calcium carbonate.
Oxides are minerals that include one or more metal cations bonded to oxygen or hydroxyl anions.
Sulfatesare minerals that include SO4 anionic groups combined with alkali earth and metal cations.
Anhydrous (no water) and hydrous (water) The two major groups of Sulfates.
Sulfidesare minerals composed of one or more metal cations combined with sulfur. Many sulfides are economically important ores.
memorize