alkathryn's version from 2016-10-16 22:48

Practice Problems

Question Answer
Sensory receptoprs in the walls of some of the large arteries that are stimulated by an increase in blood pressurebaroreceptors
the blood pressure in the right atrium is calledcentral venous pressure
___ stimulation to the heart's natural pacemaker normally results in a faster heart ratesympathetic
a substance that can stimulate a primary immune response but is unable to produce the symptoms of a disease is avaccine
the foreign or non self substances that trigger immune responses are calledantigens
disease causing agents such as viruses and bacteria are calledpathogens
the largest of the lymph organs, receives blood rather than lymphspleen
lymphocytes that are responsible for antibody mediated immunityB lymphocytes
relaation of the smooth muscle in the wall of a blood vessel so that the lumen widens and blood flow increasesvasodilation
a protein that are attired after antibodies bind to their specific antigens responsible for many of the antibody actions
Disease causing agents are calledpathogens
the structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of avein
The two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are thethoracic duct and right lymphatic duct
After lymph leaves the collecting ducts, it enters _________ and becomes part of the ___veins, plasma
Lymph differs from plasma in thatplasma has more protein than lymph
The primary functions of lymph includereturning proteins to the bloodstream and transporting foreign particles to the lymph nodes
The functions of the lymphatic system do not includetransporting hormones to intestinal smooth muscle
The region of lymph node through which blood vessels and nerves pass is called thehilum
The lymph nodes of the axillary region receive lymph mainly from theupper limb and mamary gland
A lymph node consists ofall of the above
Lymph nodes are grouped throughout the body except in thecentral nervous system
Cells in a lymph node that engulf and destroy damaged cells, foreign substances and cellular debris aremacrophages
Henry has a cut on his thighinguinal region
The spleenall the above
T lymphocytes mature in the thymus in response tothymosins
Innate defenses arefast and non specific
A virus differs from other pathogens in that it isnot capable of reproduction outside a living cell
Inflammation is a response toall the above
Interferon is a group of hormone like peptides that cells produce in response toviruses
The most active phagocytic cells in circulating blood areneutrophils and monocytes
Which of the following is not a mechanical barrier against microorganismsdiarrhea
___ initiates a cassava effect in response to foreign proteins in the bodythe complement system
Low-grade fever is an effective defense for short periods of time because itincreases temperature which slows the growth of bacteria
An immune response that is slower but more specific for the pathogen is theadaptive defense
A transplant recipients body rejects a trasplated organ because her ___ does not match that of the donor closely enoughmajor histocompatibility complex
The cells that are primarily responsible for immunity arelymphocytes and macrophages
T lymphocytes are responsible le forcell-mediated immunity
The most abundant type of immunoglobulin isIgG
The type of resistance that is acquired as a result of developing a disease isnaturally acquired active immunity
Following a primary immune response, the cells that give rise to memory cells areboth B and T cells
Cytotoxic T cells destroycancer cells and virus containing cells
A newborn is protected against certain digestive and respiratory ifectiouns thanks to IgA from the mother'smilk
In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is directed towardcells of the body "self"
Which of the following is an autoimmune diseaseall of the above
A primary immune response ___, and a second immune response ___produces antibodies within five to ten days, produces antibodies within a day or two
B cells divide and differentiate into ___ which produce and secrete antibodiesplasma cells
The anti-Rh factor is an example of anIgG
Heart valve cells can be damaged throughautoimmunity
circulation is vital because itsupplies oxygen and nutrients to and removes wastes from tissues
The pulmonary circuitsends deoxygenated blood to the lungs
The systemic circuitsends oxygenated blood to the tissues
When the ventricular walls contractthe mitral and tricuspid valves close
Which of the following is the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves from the vena cava to the lungs? right atrium, tricuspid, right ventricle, pulmonary valve
The inner lining of the heart is theendocardium
Which of the following waves of an ECG pattern is correctly describedP wave depolarization of atria
The correct sequence of parts that carry cardiac impulses isSA node, AV node, AV bundle, Purkinje fibers
The right atrium receives blood directly fromthe superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
The pain of angina pectoris comes from a blockage in an artery that supplies theheart
Which of the following correctly matches the valve to its functionmitral valve permits one way blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle
The normal pacemaker of the heart is thesinatorial node
In an ECG pattern, the P wave is caused bydepolarization of the atrial muscle fibers
In an ECG pattern , the T wave is caused bydepolarization of the ventricular muscle fibers
The effect on the heart of excess potassium ion concentration usually isdecreased rate and decreased force of contraction
An abnormally slow heart rate is termedbradycardia
Once cells in the SA node reach thresholdan action potential is triggered
Which type of blood vessel holds the greatest volume of blood?vein
Which of the following is not a branch of the aortapulmonary artery
The epicardiumis the visceral pericardium
Given these valves, arrange them in the order in which an erythrocyte would pass through them after returning to the heart fro the left arm4, 3, 2, 1
The second heart sound, described as "dump" is actually the sound of thesemilunar valves closing
Why is the left ventricle more musclar than the right ventricle?because it contracts with force sufficient to push blood through the systemic circuit
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The blood leaving the aorta is full ofoxygen
As the blood reaches the lungs, what is removed from the bloodcarbon dioxide
Endocrine glands areductless
Endocrine gland secretehormones into the bloodstream
Hormones act only ontarget cells
Exocrine glands secrete intoducts that lead to body surface
exocrine glads secreteexternally
Exocrine glands deliver products directly toa specific site
Paracrine secretions affectnearby cells
Autocrine secretions affectcells that secrete the substances
Endorcrine glands secret hormones intobodily fluids
Exocrine glands secrete substances intooutside environment
Nervous system releasesneurotransmitters into synapses
Endocrine system isprecise
Hormones areorganic compounds
Two types of hormonessteroid / non-steroid
Steroids akalipids
Non-steroids akaamino acides, proteins, peptides, glycoproteins
Stewards arelipids containing complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms
Examples of steroidssex hormones (testos, estros), and adrenal cortex hormones (cortisol, aldosterone)
All steroid hormones are produced fromcholesterol
Amines are derived fromtyrosine (epinep, norep)
Proteinslong chains of amino acids (growth hormone)
Peptidesshort chains of amino acids (oxytocin)
Carbs joined to proteinsTSH