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Midterm Review

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jkluger's version from 2016-11-19 14:21

Midterm

Question Answer
A green gas cylinder contains? Oxygen
Pressure regulator changes the flow from 2000 PSI to what?50 PSI
A reservoir bag should be how much larger than the tidal volume?3-6 times
If an animal is less than 7 kg which type of breathing system should be used?Non-rebreathing
What is the FGF for induction on a rebreathing system?40-100 ml/kg/min
A non-rebreathing system relies on?High FGF
How does the non-rebreathing machine clear the CO2 from he system?High FGF
What is the limitation of charcoal scavenging?Can't absorb N2O
Which species should not have a cuffed ET tube?Birds, small mammals, and neonates
Which parameter can you check to see it the ET tube is placed correctly?ETCO2
How are ET tubes referred to?By internal diameter
Which inhalant anesthetic has the highest SVP?Desflurane
Which inhalant has a room temperature boiling point making it require a special vaporizer for delivery?Desflurane
The Blood:Gas coefficient is inversely related to? Speed of induction
Blood:Gas represents...?Solubility
Oil:Gas represents...?Potency
How are CO and induction time related?Low CO means induction is faster
How are MAC and potency related?Inversely
Which inhalant has the highest MAC?N2O
Which inhalant has the lowest MAC?Halothane
Which inhalant has analgesic effects?N2O
What is the danger of using N2O?It diffuses into gas filled spaces causing expansion
Which anesthetic creates compound ASevoflourane
A pig develops malignant hypothrmiaGive Dantrolene
Which inhalant is a risk to pregnant women?N2O
Which inhalant may cause hepatitis?Halothane
Which inhalant may be linked to Alzheimer's disease?Isoflourane
Which inhalant is nephrotoxic in rats?Sevoflourane
Are local anesthetics acids or bases?Weak bases
What is the MOA of local anesthetics?Direct Na channel blockade preventing nerve conduction
Potency of a local anesthetic is related to...?Lipid solubility
Speed of onset of a local anesthetic is related to...?pKa
Why do inflamed tissues decrease the effectiveness of local anesthetics?Lowers the pH of tissues causing the drugs to ionize
Protein binding determines..?DOA
What is affected by systemic toxicity of local anesthetic?First CNS followed by cardiovascular and methanoglobinuria
Which group of local anesthetics is more likely to cause allergic reactions?Esters
If you add vasoconstrictors to a local anesthetic it...?Prolongs DOA
If you add hyaluronidase to a local anesthetic it..?increases tissue permeability causing quicker onset
Which local anesthetics are cardiotoxic when given IV?Bupivicaine and Ropivicaine
How is Lidocaine metabolized?It is glucoronidated
Which local is used often for nerve blocks in horses?Mepivicaine
Which local is the only food animal approved drug?Procaine
Which is an Ester?Procaine
Which local should not be given intra-articularly?Bupivicaine
What is EMLA?Eutectic Mixtures (2.5% Lidocaine + 2.5% Prilocaine)
When is EMLA used?20-30 minutes before placing a catheter
Why would you do a maxillary nerve block?If you need to block the soft palate
Which trigeminal nerve block blocks the bone, incisors, and soft tissue rostral to the second mandibular premolar?Mental block
How do you verify that a epidural needle is correctly placed?Fluoroscopy or hanging drops
Which wears off first, a motor or sensory block?Motor
Hyperalgesia is...?Sensitized nerves leading to pain when it shouldn't be present
Preemptive analgesia is used to prevent...?Wind up
What are the contraindication of NSAIDs? Impaired renal/hepatic function, dehydration, coagulopathies, animals that are pregnant or have GI issues
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