Midterm-Previous Exams

alkathryn's version from 2016-10-16 22:48


Question Answer
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The blood leaving the aorta is full ofoxygen
Blood is supplied to the myocardium by means of thecoronary arteries
The layer of the heart that forms a smooth, protective lining of the heart chambers and valves is theendocardium
The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents a back-flow of blood in theright ventricle
Which structure contains the lowest amount of oxygenvena cava
Blood in all veins is relatively low in oxygenfalse
Cell-mediated immunity is provided byT-cells
Which type of immunoglobulin molecule is passed on to nursing infant in breast milk?IgA
Which lymphatic area is larger in a child than an adult?thymus
Plasma cellsproduce antibody molecules
Cytotoxic T cells destroycancer cells and virus-containing cells
Which of the following are cytokines?colony stimulating factors, interferons, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor
A virus differs from other pathogens in that it isnot capable of reproduction outside a living cell.
Complement proteinsare found in blood plasma
A transplant recepients body rejects a transplanted organ because her _ does not match that of the donor closely enougha major histocompatibility complex
Information about blood pressure is collected and sent to the brain bybaroreceptors
Which subset of WBCs accounts for acquired, specific immunity?both b and c
At the arteriole end of a capillary, O2 is being delivered to the interstitial fluid/tissue cells, as are essential nutrients. At the venue end of the same capillary, CO2 is being picked up from the interstitial fluid/tissue cells, as is ammonia. This capillary bed is probably part ofthe systemic circuit
How are B cells activated?A B cell is activated when it encounters an antigen that matches its B cell receptors and receives cytokines from helper T cells
As the blood reaches the lungs, what is removed from the blood?carbon dioxide
Which of the following correctly lists the structures according to the sequence of fluid flow?blood capillaries, interstitial spaces, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, subclavian veins
Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?tunica interna/intima
The circulatory pathway that carries blood from the digestive tract towards the liver is termed thehepatic portal circuit
The second heart sound, described as "dump" is actually the sound of thesemilunar valves closing
The structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of avein
Lymph differs from plasma in thatplasma has more protein than lymph
Interferon is a group of hormone like peptides that cells produce in response toviruses
Which of the following statements best describes arteries?all arteries carry blood away from the heart
Sympathetic stimulation to the heart's natural pacemaker normally results ina faster heart rate
Which of the following contain lymph fluid?lacteals
Once action potentials are generated by the heart's intrinsic conduction system, they are conducted from myocardial cell to myocardial cell via _ located in the _gap junctions, intercalated discs
_ are thin-walled, closed-ended tubeslymphatic capillaries
_ are the largest of the lymph organs, receives blood rather than lymphspleen
Proteins synthesized by lymphocytes and released into body fluids which combine with and destroy specific foreign antigensantibodies
An immune response that is slower but more specific for the pathogen is theadaptive defense
Which of the following is not a mechanical barrier against microorganisms?diarrhea
Which vessel type is not correctly matches which one of its functions?arterioles - return blood from the tissues to the atria
Friction between the blood and vessel wallscauses peripheral resistance
The major factors determining blood pressure arecardiac output and peripheral resistance
Control of the blood pressure is coordinated by this part of the brainmedulla oblongata
Which of the following is not a function of the spleen?sit of stem cell maturation into T and B cells
The spleen is much like a lymph node except that the spleenfilters blood
Antibodies aregamma globulin proteins
The function of interferons is toprevent viral replication
A primary immune response is _, and a secondary immune response is _.production of antibodies after the body's initial exposure to an antigen; the rapid production of large quantities of antibodies after subsequent exposure to the antigen
Injections of gamma globulin are sometimes given to provideartificially acquired passive immunity
Disease-causing agents are calledpathogens
B cells are involved inonly adaptive immunity
Following a primary immune response, the cells that give rise to memory cells areboth B cells and T cells
Thymosin is an enzyme required to stimulate T-cell production in the spleenFalse
Secretions that affect only nearby cells are termedparacrine
All hormones areorganic compounds
_ controls hormone concentrationsnegative feedback
The thymus gland secretes hormones called _thymosins
The hormone that the pineal gland secretes ismelatonin
Hormones that the posterior pituitary secretes are synthesized in thehypothalamus
A hormone that functions to help regulate the secretion of another hormonetropic hormone
Which gland controls basal metabolic rate (BMR)?thyroid
From its point of secretion until it reaches its target cells, Thyroid Releasing Hormone is found in or passes through which structures?hypothalamus, hypothalamus-hypophyseal portal vessels, anterior pituitary
The most abundant type of plasma protein is _albumin
A "fight of flight" situation does not stimulate the secretion of _androgen
Second messengers are triggered as a response topeptide hormones
Steroid hormones are made fromcholesterol
Which hormone is antagonistic to parathyroid hormone?calcitonin
The hypothalamus is connected to the anterior pituitary byshort blood vessels
Which of the following is not true for cortisol?cortisol is produced by the adrenal medulla
Diabetes insipidus is caused byADH deficiency
Two terms that are paired incorrectly are _corticosteroid-adrenal medulla
The adenohypophysis secretes hormones that are produced by the hypothalamusFalse
The adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla are structurally and functionally differenttrue
Hormones that enter target cells and bind to receptors in the nuclear are calledsteroid hormones
A hormone has a half-life of 30 minutes. After an hour, _ percent of the original number of molecules remains25
Maxwell has a very high metabolic rate, is skinny, and has protruding eyes. These are symptoms ofhyperthyroidism
Nonsteroid hormones cause _ in their target cellsactivation of adenylate cyclase
A steroid hormone acts on a target cell bydirectly causing protein synthesis
Target cells for releasing hormones are in thehypothalamus
Aldosterone promotes the homeostasis of ions by causing the kidneys toconserve sodium and excrete potassium
In which organ are most plasma proteins synthesized?liver
Blood proteins play an important part inAll of the above - A, B, and C
Hematocrit isthe percent of red blood cells in a blood sample
A blood clot that forms abnormally in a blood vessel is athrombus
All blood cells, including platelets, are derived from one type of stem cell called ahemocytoblast
Arrange the following formed elements in the correct order from most numerous to least numerous in normal blood1, 3, 2
What metal ion is essential to virtually all stages of coagulation?Calcium
The form of anemia caused by lack of dietary iron isiron deficiency anemia
Which of the following is not required for the formation of a blood clot?Albumin
The release of tissue thromboplastin initiatesthe extrinsic clotting mechanism
Erythroblastosis fettles may occur ina second Rh-positive fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman
Vitamin B12 is poorly absored in the absence ofintrinsic factor
Diapedesis ismovements of white blood cells out of the circulation
What hormone is released from the kidneys?erythropoietin
Each hemoglobin molecule has _ heme groups and _ global molecules4, 4
The liquid portion of the blood with fibrinogen and some of the clotting proteins removed isserum
Correct sequence for differentiation of a red blood cell?hematopoietic stem cell, erythroblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte
Which of these components of hemoglobin is correctly matched with its fate following the destruction of an erythrocyte?globin--broken down into amino acids
The thyroid gland has a special ability to remove the element _ from the bloodiodine
Name a vitamin that is required for blood clottingVitamin K
What gland produces "growth hormone"?anterior pituitary
Kelly is exhibiting neuromuscular irritibility, tetany, dry skin and nails, cavities. Hypocalcemia is noted. Hormone of hypo secretion isparathyroid hormone
The major stimulus for release of parathyroid hormone ishumoral

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