Midterm Definitions and Concepts

blueghost's version from 2017-04-07 00:36


Question Answer
Criminologymultidisciplinary science involving sociology, criminal justice, political science, psychology, public policy, economics, and biological aspects; study of crimes, criminals, crime victims, and theories explaining illegal and or deviant behaviour, the social reaction to crime, the effectiveness of anti-crime policies and the broader political terrain of social control
Criminal justicethe study of agencies of social control in society (police, courts, and corrections)
explanatory researchasking "why" of a phenomenon; used when evaluating
descriptive researchthe majority of the research in the criminology field; describes the problem or topic
applied researchevaluates the effectiveness or impact of a policy; determines if programs should continue
deviant behaviourbehaviour that is not accepted by cultural norms
Uniform Crime Report (UCR)most widely cited source of official criminal statistics; done by the FBI
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)includes a brief account of each incident from the police; included additional crimes that the UCR did not
National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS)attempts to help figure out the dark circle of crime by interviewing individuals about crimes/victimization
Self-Reporting Surveys ask individuals about their recent and lifetime participation in criminal activity anonymously
theory set of interconnected statements or propositions that explain how two or more events or factors are related to one another
Self-Report Survey disadvantagesover and under reporting, exaggeration of criminal activities, failure to recognize their criminal behaviour; least reliable method of data collection
influence of the media on the publicincrease in the public's fear of crime
consensus perspectivelaws should be endorsed in order to criminalize certain types of behaviour; based on agreement of society, we are in gen agreement that certain behaviours do not reflect opinions or societal values
conflict perspective"depicts society as a collection of diverse groups of business owners, workers, professionals, students, who are in constant and continuing conflict; groups that can use their political power use the law and criminal justice system to advance their economic and social position
interactionist perspectiveindividuals act based on interpretations of reality; looks at the way indivs react (+ or -) to situations and reexamines behaviour compared to others'
victimologythe study of victims of a particular offender
number of annual victims in the US according to the NCVS 20 million
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to extreme traumatic stress or involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury or other threats or witnessing a similar event; feelings of alienation/detachment, sleep issues, difficulty concentrating, or
victim coping mechanisms alcohol, social issues, seeking revenge, causing stress, drug dependency/addictions
age at which victimization rates decreaserisks diminish rapidly after age 25
percent of general public who were victimized by crime in lifespan75% of general public
percent of murder victims related to offenderapprox 22%
victim impact statementsimpact statement before the sentencing judge to illustrate how the victimization affected life; oral or written
crisis interventionemergency psychological care directed at assisting victim who is experiencing a crisis (medical care to basic transport and shelter)
classical school of criminology influence on penal codeslaw made proportionate to crime; punishment should fit the crime
criminology and other social science fieldsmultidisciplinary
deterrence theorists beliefs crime rates are manipulated and measured by the threat of criminal punishment; central theme of theories is perception; perception impacts thought which then impacts criminality
just desertsmodel states offenders deserve the punishment they receive because they committed a criminal act; punishments should be proportionate to seriousness of the crime and due process must be followed
specific deterrencerelied on belief that memories of a former punishment will avoid future wrongdoing
general deterrenceperceptions of future punishments ; other's will not commit a similar crime for fear of the punishment
mesomorphwell-developed muscles and athletic appearance; active, aggressive, sometimes violent and MOST likely to become criminals
endomorphheavy build, slow moving; lethargic behaviour, unlikely to commit violent crime, more willing to engage in less strenuous criminal activities
ectomorphtall, thin, and less social and more intellectual; LEAST likely to commit crimes
humane geneidea that genetics alone does not create criminals but is linked to personal traits like intelligence, personality and chemical/genetic makeup, which mixed with the environmental factors, can produce crime/antisocial behaviour
hormonestestosterone and other hormones that could influence behaviour are being studied and could suggest why crime rates in males decline with age as testosterone does too; hormonal variation could affect temperament
idprimitive part of individual's brain; unconscious biological drives for sex, food, shelter, and other life-sustaining necessities; simply follows the pleasure principle, with instant gratification and w/o concern for others
egoguided by the reality principle; takes into account with is practical by societal standards and norms
superegomoral aspect of the individuals personality; passes judgements on different types of behaviour; conscience and ego ideal parts
conscience superegowhat is right and wrong with society and foces the ego to control the id with respect to morality and behavioural concerns
poor attachment relationship to parents linked to more delinquency
percent of teachers in Milgram's study who delivered lethal shock65%
attachmentsthe emotional bond to another person
personalitystable patterns of behaviour
percent of population considered psychopathic1%
schizophreniainvolve severe breakdowns in thought patterns, emotions, and perceptions; sometimes social withdrawal and hallucination
Chicago Schoolresearch by Robert Park and Ernest Burgess at the University of Chicago; thinks criminality is a result of environment and choice not personal traits
Indications of social disorganizationHigh unemployment; High school dropout rates; Deteriorated housing; Low-income levels, Residential mobility; Large numbers of single-parent households
neutralization examplesdeny responsibility; deny injury; deny the victim; condemn condemners; appeal to higher loyalties
main social bond theory elementsattachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
social bond theory critiquesnot all bonds are equal; bonds change over time; doesn't explain all modes of criminality; too simplistic
state victim rights bill componentsnotified of proceedings and the status of the defendant; present at the proceedings; make a statement; be consulted before a case is dismissed or plea is entered; speedy trial; keep the victim contact info confidential
Beccaria's Writingspeople should choose all behaviours; choices are designed to bring them pleasure and reduce pain; criminal choices can be controlled by fear of punishment; more severe and certain the punishment the greater the ability to control criminal behaviour
Cali victim compensation lawfirst available; victims receive payment for medical bills, loss of wages, loss of future earnings, counseling and funeral expenses in the event of a death
dark figure of crimeactual amount of crime committed
recidivismchance of criminal committing another crime
cycle of violencea repetitive cultural of violence and abuse is a prime example of how victimization can lead to anti-social behavior
"get tough movement"reviewed elements of free will and harsh punishments the neoclassical school of thought emerged.
displacementinvolves deflecting crime to another geographic location.
phrenologystudy of human skulls and the impact on human behavior
subterranean valuesmorally tinged influences that have become entrenched in the culture but are publicly condemned.
target-hardening techniquesplacing a deadbolt on a door, installing additional lighting, fencing yards, and installing alarm systems are designed to reduce the chances of being victimized.
number of people behind bars in Americaclose to 2.3 million people
dangers of drinking by age of 14five times more likely to become alcoholics than people who hold off on drinking until the age of 21.
percent of ADHD participants more likely to commit a crime than peers6.5 percent more likely to commit a crime
common mental disorders associated with criminal behaviourSchizophrenic disorders; Paranoid disorders; Mood disorders; Antisocial personality disorder
methods to measure neurological functioningmemorization and visual awareness tests, short-term auditory memory tests, and verbal IQ tests.
peacemaking criminologybelieve poverty is a form of suffering that causes crime
critical criminologists on globalizationreplaced imperialism and colonization as a new form of economic domination and oppression by Westerners.
critical criminologists on racial minoritiesunemployed racial minorities may be perceived as a threat to society and must be controlled by incarcerated
critiques of critical criminologyunfairly target the capitalistic system ; most theft from the rich is not a means of survival, rather luxury items such as jewelry, vehicles, and electronics ; refuse to address the real problems and conflicts, which existed in communist countries, such as the gulags and purges within the Soviet Union
critical feminist beliefs of female sexual victimizationa product of male socialization.
egalitarian familieshusband and wives sharing similar positions of power at home and in the workplace
patriarchal familiesdevalue women’s contributions to families and only focus on financial contributions commonly by males
crime as expression view of critical criminologistsbelieve crimes such as burglary, drug dealing, robbery, and assault are simply expressions of anger over unjust economic conditions
instrumental interpretation of critical criminologythe law and justice system serve the powerful and rich, which enables the ruling class to impose their morality and standard norms of behavior on the entire society
focus of critical criminologists todaymisuse of power, unequal punishment, immigration, death penalty cases, the war on drugs, corporate crime, war crimes, and public opinion
status frustrationlower-class youths experience culture conflict; allows them to join gangs, commit crimes, and be deviant
self-stigmaoccurs when negative social attitudes are internalized, subsequently harming a person’s self-esteem, and inducing shame
Jean Piaget's Reasoning Process Ideadeveloped at birth and continue until 12 years old and older
principles of differential association theoryan individual becomes involved in criminal behavior when he or she identifies more favorable than unfavorable consequences to violating the law

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