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Microverview Test 2

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lunalovegood's version from 2016-03-08 04:00

Section

Types
Question Answer
C. perfringens, C. tetani, C. botulinum, C. difficileClostridia
C. diptheriae, C. ulcerans, C. matrucotti, C. hofmanni, C. xerosisCorynebacterium
P. acnes, P. propionicaPropionibacteria
Gas gangreneC. perfringens
Food poisoningC. perfringens, B. cereus
BacteraemiaC. perfringens
Soft tissue infectionsC. perfringens
TetanusC. tetani
BotulismC. botulinum (food, infant, wound, adult intestinal toxemia, iatrogenic)
Pseudomembranous colitisC. difficile
Diphtheria C. diphteriae
Diphtheria like throat lesionC. ulcerans
Only corynebacterium in oral cavityC. matrucotti (plaque, biofilms)
Diphtheroids C. hofmannii and C. xerosis (affect immuno suppressed)
AcneP. acnes (plaque, biofilms)
Tularensis, holarctica, mediasiatica, novicidaFrancisella
TularemiaF. tularensis
Zaire, Sudan, Tai forest, Bundibuyago (Reston)Ebola - filoviridae - ebolavirus
African and Asian lineagesZika - flaviridae - flavivirus
ToxoplasmosisToxoplasma gondii (PARASITE)
RabiesLyssavira - Rhabdoviridae
LymeBorrelia burgdorferi
B. abortus, B. melitensis (B. suis, B. canis)Brucella
Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosisYersinia
PlagueYersinia pestis
EnterocolitisY. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis
B. anthracis, B. cereusBacillus
AnthraxB. anthracis
Enteritiscryptosporidium (PARASITE)
Chlamydia trachomatis, ChlamydoPHILIA pneumoniae, ChlamydoPHILIA psittaciChlamydiaceae
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Gram
Question Answer
Clostridiapositive (C. perfringens, C. tetani, C. botulinum, C. difficile)
C. perfringenspositive
C. tetanipositive
C. botulinumpositive
C. difficilepositive
Corynebacteriumpositive (C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, C. matrucotti, C. hofmanni, C. xerosis)
C. diphtheriaepositive
Propionibacteriapositive (P. acnes, P. propionica)
Francisella tularensisnegative
Brucellanegative
Yersinianegative
Bacilluspositive
Bacteriodes, Prevotella, Veillonella, Fusobacteriumnegative
Eubacterium, Lactobacillus, Actinomyces, Peptostreptococcuspositive
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Mediums
Question Answer
Clostridiablood enriched medium (C. perfringens, C. tetani, C. botulinum, C. difficile)
Corynebacteriumblood agar (C. diphteriae, C. ulcerans, C. matrucotti, diphtheroids)
Francisella tularensisdoesn't grow on regular agar, don't culture
Yersiniaslow growth, irregular & rough, 27-30 deg C
Bacillusirregular margins, non-hemolytic
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SPORES
Question Answer
Clostridiayes
Corynebacteriumno
Francisella tularensisno
Brucellano
Yersiniano
Bacillusyes (central spore)
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Metabolism
Question Answer
Clostridiaanaerobic (C. perfringens can kinda do oxygen)
C. perfringensonly clostridia that can kinda tolerate oxygen
Corynebacteriumfacultative anaerobe
Propionibacteriaobligate anaerobe
Brucellaobligate aerobe
Yersiniafacultative anaerobes
Bacillusaerobic or facultative anaerobe
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Toxins
Question Answer
Phopholipase (alpha toxin)C. perfringens
Toxins A-E. A is human.C. perfringens
Pure pathogenC. tetani
Toxins A-G. A and B in food. E in fish. F occasional. C. botulinum
Toxin A - potent enterotoxin. Toxin B - potent cytotoxin.C. difficile
Toxin subunits A & B inhibits protein synthesisC. diphtheriae
Exotoxin causes serious systemic infectionC. diphtheriae
Bacteriophage with "tox gene"c. diphtheriae
Tetanospasmin, tetanolysinC. tetani
Targets macrophages, can infect epithelial cells (mechanism unknown)F. tularensis
Endotoxin (main), capsule, hyaluronidaseBrucella
F1 antigen (capsular antigen), V-W antigen, YOP, Murine toxin (exotoxin lyse cells rodents), EndotoxinY. pestis
(PA) protective antigen. (LF) Lethal factor. (EF) Edema factor.B. anthracis (PA + EF and PA + LF --> shock and death disease)
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TREATMENT
Question Answer
Potent antitoxin A, B & E, wound debridement, penicillinTetanus
Potent antitoxin, A, B & E, ventilationBotulism
Maintain airway, antitoxin, antibiotics, vaccinationDiphtheria
14 days of oral antibiotics (streptomycin) - vaccine is under FDA reviewTularemia
Injections day 0, 3, 7, 14, 28. RIG on day 0 if no before.Rabies
Antibiotic treatment EARLYLyme disease (and food poisoning I think)
Medicated creams, keep clean & dryringworm
Tetracycline, ampicillin - prolonged Tx. Prevent with pasteurization and vaccines.Brucellosis
T/F - Doxycycline for LGV. Azithromycin or doxycycline for ocular and genital infections in adults. Erythromycin for newborn conjunctivitis and pneumonia.T
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Diagnostics
Question Answer
Stormy Clot - Litmus milkC. perfringens (differentiate from other Clostridia)
Nagler's C. perfringens (uses anti-alpha toxin)
Toxin in serum of adults, but not infantsC. botulinum
Elek plate, ELISA, PCRC. diphtheriae
Shick testC. diphtheriae (reaction means no antitoxin in them)
Elevated serum antibody in titer - with no history of vaccineF. tularensis (almost mentions fluorescent assay?)
Thrombocytopeniaebola
Leukopenia ---> neutrophiliaebola
AST > ALTebola
PT & PTT prolongedebola (coagulation)
Electrolyte balance abnormal, proteinuria, creatinineebola
Can look like malaria, typhoid fever, meningococcemia, Lassa fever, pneumoniaebola
RT-PCR is BEST! Also ELISA for IgM the IgGebola
1 in 5 ppl show symptomsZika
DFA (direct fluorescent antibody test)Rabies (most frequent test)
DFA, RT-PCR, skin biopsy, immunofluorescent microscropy, NEGRI BODIESRabies
Streptomycin, sulfanilamide, rapid Tx. Prevent with vaccine or cleanlinessY.pestis
Penicillin, Tetracycline, Erythromycin. Prevent with vaccine.B. anthracis
Infection of the small intestine with NO TREATMENTcryptosporidium
Giemsa stained cell scrapingsChlamydia
Culture in HeLa, MaCoy, Hep-2 cells. Iodine stain to detect inclusions - RB. DFA, EIA Chlamydia
NAATChlamydia (you're sure they got, but other tests were neg)
MIF (microimmunfluorescence test)Chlamydophilia pneumoniae
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RANDOs
Question Answer
Saprophytesclostridia
Some ferment sugars, some digest proteins, some both. Use to differentiateclostridia
Normal flora of colon and vaginaC. perfringens
B-hemolytic (some no hemolytic)C. perfringens
DrumstickC. tetani
Blocks inhibitory neurotransmitters at the motor nerve endsC. tetani
Wound debridement MOST effective treatmentC. tetani
POTENTIAL TERRORISMC botulinum, F. tularensis, Brucellosis, B. anthracis
Spores highly resistant to heatC. botulinum
Resistant to freezing temperatures - sensitive to heat & disinfectantF. tularensis
Strong resistance to dry heat, desiccation and disinfectant. Sensitive to oxidant and autoclaving.B. anthracis
Lethal dose 1-2 micrograms per kgC. botulinum
Muscle relaxerC. botulinum (botox)
PleomorphicCorynebacterium
Mycolic acidCorynebacterium
Snapping fissionCorynebacterium
Non-motileF. tularensis, Brucella, Yersinia, Bacillus, a bunch of anaerobic ones
MotilePeptostreptococcus, T. denticola
Type A is soilF. tularensis (Tularensis - more severe form)
Type B is aquaticF. tularensis (holarctica - less severe form)
10-50 colony units will infectF. tularensis
FEVER and LYMPH NODE INFLAMMATIONTularemia
South central area of US, 1950s more prevalent, 200 cases/yr US nowTularemia
High mortality - 1-3% treated & 30-60% pneumonic untreated & 5% ulceroglandular untreatedTularemia
Most virulent form of Tularemiaulceroglandular
75-85% of natural Tularemiaulceroglandular
Could just look like a dental abscess?Tularemia
70% mortality, no Tx availableebola (STRIVE vaccine looks promising though)
Hemorrhagic 18% of the timeebola
Direct infection of tissues, Immune dysregulation - bleeding, hemmorhaging. Hypovolemia, vascular collpase, multiorgan failure, septic shockebola
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)ebola (coagulopathy)
Negative RNA - transfers much fasterebola
Non-segmented virusebola, zika
Single stranded, negative sense RNA genomeZika
80-85% of the time mom gave newborn babyZika (but cannot cross placenta)
Pandemics are rare; fatalities are high.Flu (new influenza A)
LPAI is the ___ form of bird flu.mild
HPAI is the ____ form of bird flu.very very bad (very contagious, rapidly fatal)
This parasite is more harmful early in life to a baby. Eye and brain damage.toxoplasma gondii
PrionBSE
5 proteins - N, P, M, G, LRabies
3-12 weeks (20-60 days) incubationRabies
Fear of waterRabies
Arthritis, swollen LN, neurlogic symps, heart problemsLyme
Rash shaped in a ring on skin, scalp, groin, or feetringworm
In animals, affects genitals and causes abortions. In humans, UNDULATED FEVER.brucellosis
Facultative intracellular pathogenbrucellosis
Obligate intracellularChlamydiaceae
If it affects bone, it stays there foreverbrucellosis
B. abortus is serological determinant ___ and B. melitensis is ___.A, M
Blood --> spleen --> blood SHAKE SHAKE SHAKEundulant fever (Brucellosis)
Large inflammed LN, mortality 30-75%, men more suceptbubonic plague
____ is 90-95% mortality. ____ is almost 100% mortality.pneumonic, septicemic plague
Herbivorous animalsbacillus
T/F - Cutaneous anthrax 90%, intestinal 5%, pulmonary 5%.T
Contagious parasite. Enteritis. Diarrhea.cryptosporidium
Have DNA and RNA, but cannot make ATPChlamydiaceae
Which antibiotic no work for Chlamydia?penicillin (they lack peptidoglycan in cell wall)
EB is infectious. RB replicates.Chlamydia trachomatis
Biovars 1) trachoma 2) LGV Chlamydia trachomatis
Trachoma A-C is ____. Trachoma D-K is urethritis, cerviticitis, inclusion conjunctivitis, neonatal conjunctivitis, infant pneumonia.trachoma (C. trachomatis)
T/F - LGV L1-L3 is lymphogranuloma venereum.T
Serovars D to Kurogenital Chlamydia infections (dick)
Genital elephantiasisLGV
Detected in atherosclerotic lesionsChlamydophilia pneumoniae
What are 3 main bacteria in gut?bacteriodes, firmicutes and actinobacteria
Strep mutans, veillonella, and lactobacilli are all associated with...caries
Lumpy jawactinomyces
Acute NUGtreponema, fusobacteria
P. gingivalis, B. forsythias, T. denticolaRed Complex
P. gingivalis post-translation protein modification in RAcitrinulation
Actinomyces says sharing is caring.if you see it with penicillin resistance, it got it from a co-pathogen
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CAPSULE
Question Answer
Corynebacteriumno
EbolaENVELOPE
ZikaENVELOPE
Brucellamicrocapsule (some)
Yersiniayes
Bacillusyes (D-glutamate)
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SHAPE
Question Answer
Propionibacteriarods
Francisella tularensiscoccobacillus
Zikaicosahedral
RabiesBULLET SHAPE (ONLY VIRUS WITH THIS UNIQUE SHAPE)
Brucellacoccobacillus
Yersiniacoccobacillus
Bacillusrods with square ends in long chains (bamboo)
Peptostreptococcus and Veillonellacocci (ALL OTHERS FROM PPT ARE BACILLI)
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VECTOR
Question Answer
Tularemiaticks, mosquitoes, deer flies (no human to human transmission reported - animal hosts - Rabbit fever, deer fever)
Ebolabats
ZikaAedes mosquito (also transmits dengue and chikungunya)
H1N1pig
H1N5bird
West Nilemosquitoes (reservoir = birds)
Toxoplasmosiscat poo, undercooked meat, contaminated water (reservoir = pigs, cats, rats, deer, lamb)
BSEbeef (reservoir = cattle)
Rabiesraccoons? (raccoons > bats > stuff like skunks and foxes. Cats > dogs)
Lymetick (reservoir = deer)
Ringwormany surface contaminated with FUNGUS
Brucellosiscontaminated milk/meat, slaughter, aerosols, direct contact (reservoir = cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, dogs)
Yersiniaflea or respiratory
Trachomaeye to eye (droplets, contaminated clothing, flies)
C. psittaci reservoir = bird (parrot fever)
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PLACES
Question Answer
Central and south america, mexico, caribbeanZika
PennsylvaniaRABIES (in general middle part of US)
DC and Alaska. Also the South.Chlamydia
Middle east, North Africa, south Asia, (crowded and poor sanitation areas)Trachoma (leading cause preventable blindness)
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