What is the toxin produced by Yersinia Enterocolitica and its clinical manifestation?
Heat Stable toxin causing watery diarrhea
What is the toxin produced by Bacillus Anthracis and its clinical manifestation?
Edema factor which causes edematous borders of black eschar in cutaneous anthrax
What is the toxin produced by Vibrio Cholera and its clinical manifestation?
Cholera toxin which causes voluminous "rice water" diarrhea; Cholera toxin AB toxin (ADP-ribosyl transferase) constituviely activates adenyl cyclase, leading to increased cAMP --> cAMP inhibits absorption across the epithelium and causes secretion of electrolytes
What is the toxin produced by Bordetella Pertussis and its clinical manifestation?
Pertussis toxin, whooping cough - cough on expiration and whoops on inspiration
Which organisms inhibit neurotransmitter release with the cleaving of SNARE proteins?
C.Tetani and C. Botulinum
What is the toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and its clinical manifestation?
Tetanospasmin, causes muscle rigdity and "lock jaw"; toxin prevents release of inhibitory (GABA and glyine) neurotransmitters in spinal cord
What is the toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum and its clinical manifestation?
Botulinum toxin, causes Flaccid paralysis, floppy babyl toxin prevents release of stimulatory (Ach) signals at musculoskeletal junction, --> flaccid
What is your differential for aspiration pneumonia?
Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Peptococcus
Most common cause of atypical pneumonia, usually affects young adults (classically, military recruits or college students living in a dormitory). Complications include autoimmune hemolytic anemia (IgM against I antigen on RBCs cayses cold hemolytic anemia) and erythema multiforme. Not visible on gram stain due to lack of cell wall.
Second most common cause of atypical pneumonia in young adults
Most common cause of atypical pneumonia in infants
Respiratory Synctial virus (RSV)
Atypical pneumonia with posttransplant immunosuppresive therapy
Atypical pneumonia in the elderly, immunocompromised, and those with preexisting lung disease. Also increases the risk for superimposed S. aureus or H. influenzae bacterial pneumonia
Atypical pneumona with high fever (Q fever); seen in farmers and veterinarians (the spores are deposited on cattle by ticks or are present in cattle placentas)
Hos is Coxiella burnetti different from other rickettsiae?
1) It causes pneumonia 2) it does not require arthropod vector for transmission (survives as high heat resistant endospores) and 3) does not produce a skin rash
Most common cause of secondary pneumonia (bacterial pneumonia superimposed on a viral upper respiratory tract infection), often complicated by abscess or empyema
Common cause of secondary pneumonia and pneumona superimposed on COPD
Pneumonia in cytic fibrosis patients
Community acquired pneumonia and pneumonia superimposed on COPD
Communityacquired pneumonia, pneumonia superimposed on COPD, or pneumonia in immuncompromised states; transmitted from water source. Intracellular organism that is best visulaized by silver stain
Most common cause of community acquired pneumonia; usually seen in middle aged adults and elderly
Affects malnourished and debilitated individuals, especially eldely in nursing homes, alcoholic, and diabetic enteric flora that is aspirated. Thick mucoid capsule results in gelatinous sputum (currant jelly), often complicated by abscess
Is generalized asymptomatic, resulting in focal caseating necrosis in the lower lobe of the lung and hilar lymph nodes, Foci undergo fibrosis and calcification forming Ghon complex
Reactivation is commonly due to AIDs; may also be seen in aging; Occur at apex of the lung (high oxygen tension); Forms cavitary foci of caseous necrosis; may also lead to miliary pulmonary or bronchopneumonia. Clinical features include fevers and night sweats, cough with hemoptysis, and weight loss; Biopsy reveals caseating granulomas; AFB stain reveals acid fast bacilli
Secondary TB infection
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