trocket52's version from 2015-10-04 02:02

Section 1

Question Answer
Bacteria (gen. characteristics) Single-celled, prokaryotic, and members of two domains: the Eubacteria & Archaea. Archaea have been on earth for billions of years & live in the presence of methane, high temperature, & very high salt (are extremophiles)
ProkaryotesNo nucleus & organelles. Have (smaller) ribosomes and cell wall
EukaryotesHave nucleus, organelles, ribosomes, & cell wall
AnaerobesBacteria that can live without oxygen such as Clostridium
FacultativeBacteria that can grow without or without oxygen such as E. Coli
MicroaerophilesBacteria that can grow in reduced oxygen levels
Bacterial EcologyMost bacteria are decomposers, some live naturally in the human body (e.g.: E. Coli), a small number cause disease (e.g.: Staphylococcus, Salmonella)
ThermophilesLive at elevated temperatures
Mesophiles Live at moderate temperatures (including 37 degrees Celsius)
PsychrophilesLive at cold temperatures
HalophilesBacteria that can grow at elevated salt concentrations. (Although many grow in or near isotonic salt conditions)
CyanobacteriaThese bacteria are photosynthetic & produce oxygen

Section 2

Question Answer
Bacterial ShapesMost bacteria are one of three basic shapes
Cocci 1 of 3 basic bacteria shape; Round
Bacilli1 of 3 basic bacteria shape; Rod-shaped
Spirals1 of 3 basic bacteria shape; Split into two types which are vibrios & spirochetes
Spirochetes Tightly wound spirals

Section 3

Question Answer
Bacterial StructureConsisting of many parts
Cell wallMost bacteria have a rigid layer outside of their plasma membrane called ________.
PeptidoglycanA chemically-made rigid structure that makes up a cell wall
Gram-Positive(1 of 2 forms of peptidoglycan) Thick with many peptidoglycan layers
Gram-Negative(1 of 2 forms of peptidoglycan) A small amount of peptidoglycan with an outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
Flagella(on outer surface of bacteria) This is for movement since bacteria don't have cilia or amoeboid motion
Fimbrae(on outer surface of bacteria) Hairlike structures for attachment to surfaces
Pilli/sex pilus( on outer surface of bacteria) Exchange of DNA
Glycocalyx(on outer surface of bacteria) A sugar-containing layer that can protect the bacteria or attach it to surfaces
Single Chromosome (internal structure of bacteria) Circular and free-floating within the cell
Plasmids(IS of bacteria) A small circular piece of DNA that replicates independently of the chromosome
Endospore(IS of bacteria) Bacillus & Clostridium make a very tough survival structure called _________
Ribosomes (of bacteria)(IS of bacteria) Are slightly smaller than those of eukaryotes & function in a slightly different way
Gram-Negative cell (for Gram stain)Involves a decolorization step with alcohol that removes the color from cells with the thinner _______. These cells are counterstained pink (safranin)
Gram-Positive cell (for Gram stain)Most bacterial stains have a positive charge and stain the cytoplasm of the bacteria. Holds onto the purple (crystal violet) primary stain

Section 4

Question Answer
Bacterial DiseasesThere is no part of the body that bacteria can't infect.
PneumoniaA deadly disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae
Enteric or coliform bacteriaA group of Gram-Negative rods that include E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella cause a variety of infections of the GI tract & also serve as indictors of pollution since they are only found in the gut or in feces.
ClostridiumA nasty spore-forming anaerobic Gram-positive rod that is the cause of tetanus, botulism, Clostridium difficile, & gras gangrene
Mycobacterium Has an outer layer of wax/lipid (referred to as acid fast) & causes the diseases tuberculosis & leprosy.
PertussisCaused by Bordatella and commonly known as the whooping cough.
Lyme Disease(1 of 2 nasty spirochetes) From Borrelia and transmitted by a tick is the cause of __________
STD Syphilis(1 of 2 nasty spirochetes) From Treponema, is the cause of ________