Microbiology - Block 3 - Part 3

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-07-22 15:22

GNB Enterobactericeae

Question Answer
Gram Negative Bacilli. Oxidase (-). Non-lactose Fermenting (white on MacConkey). Strict pathogens, cause invasive GI infectionsGNB Enterobactericeae
Gram (-) bacilli. Facultative anaerobe. Capsule. T3SS. Motile, peritrichous flagella. Oxidase (-). Non-lactose fermenting. H2S production. Can grow with bile saltsSalmonella enterica
Gram Negative Bacilli. Capsule – Vi antigen. Motile, Non-fermenter, H2S production. Human restricted, fecal-oral. Developing countries. Survive within macrophages and colonize liver, spleen, and can permanently live in gall bladderSalmonella enterica typhi
High fever lasting >7days. Headache/dementia. High monocytes in WBC. Hepato-splenomegaly. Rash “Rose Spots”. GI dysfunction. Complications include death, intestinal hemorrhage and chronic carrierTyphoid Fever
Typhoid fever is treated withFluoroquinolones
Typhoid fever vaccineVi Capsule Attenuated Vaccine
Treated with fluoroquinolones and prevented with Vi capsule attenuated vaccineSalmonella enterica typhi
Salmonella enterica typhi lives and replicates in this type of cellMacrophage
Chronic carriage of Salmonella enterica typhi is in this organGallbladder
Gram Negative Bacilli. Motile, Non-fermenter, H2S production. Oxidase (-). Zoonotic ReservoirNon-Typhoidal Salmonella
Complications includes Systemic infection, Reactive or Septic Arthritis and OsteomyelitisNon-Typhoidal Salmonella
Non-typhoidal Salmonella presents as this in a healthy hostGastroenteritis
Non-typhoidal Salmonella presents as this in a young or old hostBacteremia
Non-typhoidal Salmonella presents as this in an AIDS hostTyphoid-like Disease
Treatment for gastroenteritisSupportive (Rehydration Therapy)
Treatment for systemic infectionFluoroquinolones
On Hektoen (HE) Agar, Salmonella colonies areBlack
On Hektoen (HE) Agar, Shigella colonies areWhite
On Hektoen (HE) Agar, Yersinia colonies areYellow
Gram (-) bacilli. Facultative anaerobe. Non-motile. Oxidase (-). Non-lactose fermenting. No H2S production. Can grow with bile salts. Human-restricted, fecal-oralShigella
Dysentery (~3-4days). Initial watery diarrhea. Severe abdominal pain. High fever. Tenesmus. Later low volume stools containing WBC and mucus. Profuse bloody diarrheaShigella
Usually found in developing countries. Bacteria has Shiga toxinShigella dysenteriae
Being found in the USA daycares. Bacteria does not have Shiga toxinShigella sonnei
Complications include Reactive Arthritis (HLA-B27), Seizures and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)Shigella
Most deadly ShigellaShigella dysenteriae
Most common Shigella globallyShigella flexneri
Most common in Shigella in USAShigella sonnei
Shigella move from IEC cell-to-cell via this, causing shallow ulcerationsT3SS "Rocket" System
Shiga-toxin cleaves this ceasing translation resulting in cellular apoptosis28S rRNA
Initial sudden onset of - Severe abdominal cramping. High fever. Vomiting. Large volume watery diarrhea, maybe blood-tinged. ~1-2 days later - Tenesmus. Symptoms of dehydration. Constipation. Very high fever (up to 106°F). Small volume bloody diarrhea containing WBC and mucus. Profuse blood-liquid diarrhea if Stx-strainShigella Dysentery (Shigellosis)
Whitish-translucent colony on MacConkey agar rules outE. coli
Whitish-translucent colony on Hektoen agar rules outSalmonella
Non-motile, Oxidase (-) rules outCampylobacter
Gram (-) Bacilli. Facultative anaerobe. Coagulase (+). Grown in cold. Temperature dependent motility. Motile at 25 C. Non-motile at 37 C. Oxidase (-). Non-lactose fermenting. No H2S production, ferments sucroseYersinia enterocolitica
Zoonotic, fecal-oral. Milk and pork products esp. cold climatesYersinia enterocolitica
Complications include Reactive arthritis (HLA-B27), Pseudo-appendicitis/mesenteric adenitis (older children & teens), Erythema nodosumYersinia enterocolitica
Whitish-translucent colony on MacConkey agar rules outE. coli
Yellow colony on Hektoen agar definitive forYersinia enterocolitica
Motile at 25°C, Non-motile at 37°Yersinia enterocolitica
Gram-negative curved bacilli “Sea-gull shaped”. Motile (flagella). Oxidase +. Microaerobic 42°C growthCampylobacter
Second MC cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in USACampylobacter
Incubation is 1-7 days but onset of symptoms is usually ~48-72 hours after consumption. High fever, headache and malaise. Vomiting. Abdominal pain. Up to 10/day watery and bloody bowel movements containing WBC and pus. Tenesmus may occurCampylobacter
Some infections progress to systemic bacteremia especially in AIDS patientsCampylobacter fetus
Complication of Campylobacter jejuni that causes ascending paralysisAcute Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Gram-negative curved bacilli. “Comma shaped” unique to Vibrio. Highly Motile (flagella) via shooting motility. Oxidase +. Grows in high alkalinity. Very stable as biofilms in aquatic environments. Transmission by ingestion of contaminated seafood or water. Associated with natural disastersVibrio
Most common Vibrio globallyVibrio cholera
Most common in Vibrio USAVibrio parahaemolyticus
Subunit binds to GM ganglioside receptorClolera Toxin B
Subunit ADP-ribosylates Gαs of GCPR, thus increasing adenylate cyclase activityClolera Toxin A
MC cause of seafood gastroenteritis in USA especially shellfishVibrio parahaemolyticus
Culture on TCBS agar (Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt) = high alkalinityVibrio
Treatment replacement of water and electrolytes (NaCl plus sugar)Vibrio
Gram Negative Spiral/Curved Bacilli . Motile = Polar Flagella. Require microaerophilic (low O2). Oxidase +. Urease +. Resides in human gutVibrio
Break down urea to ammonia, which helps increase pH of the microenvironmentsUrease
Breaks down mucus layers, thus the cells are susceptible to acidic damageMucinase
Constantly expressed IL-1 by stressed cells, can lead to thisGastric Cancer
Symptoms include Nausea, Bloating, Pain in upper abdomen, Heartburn,Temporary relief after eatingDyspepsia
Detects ammonia production after ingestion of carbon 13 urea liquidUrea Breath Test
Treatment includes proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) and Macrolides (clarithromycin) and B-lactam (amoxicillin)Helicobacter pylori

Zoonotic GNB

Question Answer
Small Gram negative rods. Flagellated. Aerobic. Facultative intracellular pathogen. transmitted by vectors (ticks, fleas, sand flies, mosquitoes)Bartonella
Bump (papule) or blister (pustule) at site of injury. Lymphadenopathy near the site of the scratch or bite. Fatigue. Fever (in some people). Headache. Overall discomfort (malaise). Less common symptoms include loss of appetite, sore throat, weight lossBartonellosis
Bartonellosis is cause by introduction of this bacteria under the skin usually by an animal scratchBartonella hensleae
Fever that comes and goes in a 5-day cycle. Headache, pain behind the eyes, pain in the shin bones, general body aches, classic rash – pink-red patches and small bumps that appear and disappear, usually on the chest coinciding with the onset of feverTrench Fever
Trench fever is caused by this bacteriaBartonella quintana
Homeless people, Inmates, refugees in camps and health care workers who care for those with the disease are at greater risk for this diseaseTrench Fever
Diagnosis of this bacterial disease requires taking patient's detailed history of possible injury by a cat. Laboratory - detection of Gram negative bacteria in patient’s material – specific feature: polar flagellum. A positive culture result employing the lysis-centrifugation protocol. Serology:-ELISABartonellosis
Diagnosis of this bacterial disease requires PCR (16S ribosome) and/or DNA hybridization, restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysisTrench Fever
Small Gram negative rods/ coccobacilli. Non-encapsulated, flagellated. Aerobic. Facultative intracellular pathogen. Survive outside the host in extreme temperature, pH and humidity. Potentially biowarfare agentBrucella
The virulence factor involved in successful infection through the digestive tract of BrucellaUrease
Brucella virulence factor that prevents fusion of the bacteria-containing vacuole with lysosomes in macrophagesCyclic Beta-1-2 Glucans
Required for intracellular growth of Brucella in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Injection system used by BrucellaType IV Secretion System (T4SS)
Symptoms include septicemia leads to the undulant fevers 100-104F (often in the evening). Profuse sweating (characteristic smell of wet hay). Influenza-like symptoms including anorexia, myalgia, arthralgias, back pain. HepatomegalyUndulant Form Brucellosis
Symptoms include usually in older people (frequently veterinarians). Usually B. melitensis. Cyclic bouts of depression and sweating, fever rarely. Ocular complications (uveitis) in 5-10% patients. Chronic fatiqueChronic Form Brucellosis
Diagnosis in serum agglutination test of this level in non-endemic area for Brucellosis1:160
Diagnosis in serum agglutination test of this level in endemic area for Brucellosis1:320
Small Gram negative rods. Aerobic. Facultative intracellular pathogenFraniscella
Symptoms include chills, fever, headache, eye irritation (conjunctivitis-- if the infection began in the eye), joint stiffness, muscle pains. Red spot on the skin, growing to become a ulcer. Shortness of breath. Sweating. Weight lossTularemia
Tularemia is treated with thisStreptomycin and Tetracycline
Agar cultures emit characteristic “mousy” odor. Small Gram negative coccobacilli. Facultative anaerobic. Non-motilePasteurella multocida
Carried in the mouth and respiratory tract of various animals. Transmission occurs through bite or scratchPasteurella multocida
Deamidates a conserved glutamine residue of the α-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins that is essential for GTP-hydrolysis, thereby arresting the G protein in the active statePasteurella multocida Toxin (PMT)
Most common cause of wound infection after dog or cat bitesPasteurella multocida
Can cause localized cellulitis. Regional lymphadenopathy. Bacteremia can occur in some cases leading to osteomyelitis or endocarditis. Meningitis was reported in several cases throughout the published literaturePasteurella multocida
Beta-lactam antibiotics, fluoroquinolones or tetracyclines. Prevention: Amoxicillin/clavulanate and thorough wound cleaningPasteurella multocida
Small Gram negative rods with bipolar staining - safety pin appearance in Giemsa stain. Facultative intracellular parasite. Facultative anaerobes. Covered by a slime envelope that is heat labileYersinia pestis
Early in infection, bacteria enters cells and replicate intracellularly. With the progress of infection, bacteria is predominantly an extracellular organismYersinia pestis
Anti-phagocytic capsular antigen that inhibit phagocytosis produced by Yersinia pesitisFraction 1 (F1)
Diagnosed with Gram's stain and Giemsa or methyl blue stain looking for "safety pin" staining. Anti F-1 positive serology. PCR. First line treatment Streptomycin, Chloramphenicol (for critically ill), Tetracycline and Fluoroquinolones. Alternatively can use doxycycline, gentamycinYersinia pestis
All cases of this must be reported to the CDCYersinia pestis