robbypowell's version from 2015-12-09 02:22

Effector Mechanisms of Immunity

types of immuninty mechanisms

Question Answer
Inborn & independent of previous experienceInnate
acquired after natural exposure to foreign antigenNaturally Acquired Active
acquired via placental transferNaturally Acquired Passice
Acquired via immune cells in colostrum (special kind of mama's milk)Naturally acquired Adoptive
acquired via Specific immunizationArtificially acquired Active
acquired via administration of preformed antibodiesArtificially acquired Passive
acquired via bone marrow transplantArtificially acquired Adoptive


Question Answer
Mechanisms of Neutralizing, Opsonization, Complement activation & Receptor-mediated type are all ____ mediatedAntibody
Direct cytotoxicity (induction of apoptosis), Cytokines & Regulatory effector mechanisms are all ____ mediatedCell
____ Mediated Cytotoxicity leads to necrosis or apoptosisT-cell mediated Cytotoxicity
Polypeptides produced by T lymphocytes (and others) that communicate between cells.Cytokines
Cytokine Production is triggered by specific receptor binding and subsequent ____ _____ pathwaysSignal Transduction pathways
2 main components of cytokine activityActivation signal & Receptor for that signal
what cells become Cytotoxic T cells?CD8+ T cells
E.g. of Apoptotic mediator produced by Cytotoxic T cellsPerforin
Example of Autocrine cytokine of T-cellsIL-2 (T cells prod IL-2 --> stimulate more T-cells)
These peptides like to act locally and are mass produced (general)Cytokines
Receptor-binding of cytokines triggers a signal that results in altered pattern of ____ ____expression
what has higher production level: hormones or cytokines?Cytokines
T/F: Cytokines and antibodies are the same thingFalse (Cytokines are NOT antibodies)
Lymphocyte Migration, Activation, and Effector Function Depends on ____ _____ MoleculesCell-Adhesion (molecules that allow cell-to-cell receptors on cells to be activated so they can interact)
cell surface polypeptides serve as receptors to ensure appropriate cell-cell interactions; help cells to attach to small moleculesCell-Adhesion Molecules
4 examples of Cell-Adhesion MoleculesSelectins, Integrins, Immunoglobulins & Mucin-like Vascular Addressins
Selectins, Integrins, Immunoglobulins & Mucin-like Vascular Addressins are examples of what?Cell Adhesion Molecules
Cytokines that communicate between LeukocytesInterleukins
Cytokines that interfere with the viral cycle, protect us against cancer, and can become destructive if unregulatedInterferons
Cytokine associated with tumor necrosisTNF-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor)
Cytokine that Can be pro or anti-inflammatory (One of the most important cytokines in initiation of innate and acquired immunity)TGF-beta (Tumor growth factor)
T/F: Cytokines can Induce non-responsiveness or responsiveness to other cytokines/cells & induce secretion of other cytokinesTrue
T cell→ IL __→ IL ___→ IL ___→ IL _________ → inflammation→ WBC recruitmentIL-2; IL-12; IL-23; IL-17
T cell→ IL-2→ IL 12→ IL 23→ IL 17 → inflammation→ ____ recruitmentWBC recruitment
T/F: Nonspecific Cytokines only activated cells with specific receptorsTrue (they're non specific in production NOT cells they affect)
T/F: Nonspecific Cytokines activate immune cells universally, but are only produced under extreme duressFalse (they're non specific in PRODUCTION NOT cells they affect)
Why do cytokines only act locally?Short half-lives
T/F: High concentrations of cytokines are needed for activationTrue
T/F: Very low concentrations of cytokines are necessary for activationFalse (HIGH conc. needed for activation)
If TH1 switches to TH2 and TH2 is much higher, we call them hypersensitive because they will have higher Ig ___→ release of mediators like histamineIgE
Mild form of leprosy, TH1 is very active and it can clear out infectionTuberculoid phase (of Leprosy) (patient lives)
2nd stage of leprosy where TH2 increased and immune cells become unresponsiveLepromatous phase (of Leprosy) (Humoral response) PATIENT DIES
bacterial toxins that bridge CD4 T -cell receptors and MHC class II molecules on Antigen Presenting Cells, bypassing the need for antigen for activationSuper-antigen
"exogenous agent" that produce excess IgE as a means to down regulate inflammatory processTapeworms
"exogenous agent" that fosters the generation for T helper cells that do not produce IL-2Epstein-Barr Virus
example of oral pathogen that Impairs B and T cell functionP. gingivitis
example of oral pathogen that provokes the release of peroxide, prostaglandins, and other mediators capable of inhibiting lymphocyte function (inhibiting phagocytosis)T. Denticola
Viral replication stimulates the infected host cell to produce ______Interferon
Interferon induces uninfected cells to do what 2 things?Produce antiviral proteins that prevent translation of viral mRNA & Degrade viral nucleic acid
_____ blocks viral replication in uninfected cellsInterferon
Anti-IL-2 receptor drug is effective in ____ diseasesAutoimmune

This T help you remember T-helper cells

Question Answer
Intracellular organisms would induce cytokine secretion from what type of T Helper cell? (over simplified rule)Th1
3 e.g of cytokines secreted by Th1 cellsIL-2, IFN-gamma & TNF
3 e.g. of cytokines secreted by Th2 cellsIL-4, IL-5 & IL-10
This type of T helper cell produces IL-2, IFN-gamma, & TNF to affect B cellsTh1
This type of T helper cell causes more production of the other type and returns the body to homeostatic conditionTh2
Humoral response is induced by cytokines from what type of T-helper cells?Th2
Cell-mediated response is induced by cytokines from what type of T-helper cells?Th1
Type of T helper cell associated with pro-inflammatory responseTh1
Type of T helper cell associated with anti-inflammatory responseTh2
This type of T helper cells is special in that it is regulatory... switching off other T-cellsT-helper 3
Patient is hypersensitive with what balance of T-helper 1 and 2 levels?Th2 High; Th1 low
What T-helper cell type(s) is high in allergy?Th2
What T-helper cell type(s) is high in autoimmune conditions? (lupus and MS)Th1
What T-helper cell type(s) is high in HIV?BOTH 1 & 2

function of cytokine (note most have multiple functions... so don't know what to make of slides)

Question Answer
IFN-alpha &betaEarly mediator (Alert to infection.tumor/etc)
MIP-1alphaChemokine (recruit cells to site)
TNF-gammaDown-regulator (immune response down regulation)
IL-3Cytokine maintenance (“in house cytokines” produced by generally all cells)
IL-7Cytokine maintenance (“in house cytokines” produced by generally all cells)

4 types of cytokines

Question Answer
function on many different cellsPleomorph
only regulate, down regulate inflammation. (E.g. IL 10 and 4)Antagonist
work together with other cytokines and affecting other cytokinesSynergistic
did he mention the 4th type?No, he didn't and its not on slides (so probably not a question on it)

cytokine-related disease

Question Answer
Caused by response to G+ bacteria; sequelae: BP drops→ clots form→ hypoglycemia→ patient diesBacterial Septic Shock
Super-antigens trigger large numbers of T cells→ massive cytokine releaseBacterial Toxic shock
Super-antigens are associated with ...Bacterial Toxic shock
Lopo-Poly-Saccharide of G+ bacteria induces what cytokine in Bacterial Septic Shock?TNF-alpha
2 types of cancers that can secrete massive amounts of cytokinesLymphoid and Myeloid cancers
Trypansosma cruzi infection results in severe immune suppression, esp. Depression of Il-2 receptor productionChagas disease

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