robbypowell's version from 2015-11-04 06:33

Dentistry and Immunization

Question Answer
Antibodies are produced by ____ cellsB-cells
___ antibodies that are secreted by different B cell lineages within the bodyPolyclonal
___ antibodies are secreted by only a single B cell lineageMonoclonal
antibodies formed from human and animal antibodiesFusion antibodies
HAT medium involved in Monoclonal antibody production... HAT stands for what?Hypoxanthine Aminoprotein Thymidine
What is the most probable cross contamination between doctors and patients? (p-->p, p-->d, d-->p)Patient --> Dentist
What 2 allergies are problematic with vaccination?Egg (prepared in medium with egg) & Barker's Yeast
Is there more Hepatitis B in blood, semen, or urine?Blood (high), Semen (moderate), Urine (no/low)
T/F: Antiviral Chemoprophylaxis is a good substitute for vaccinationFalse (therapeutic, not preventative)
Vaccines should be ___, ___ and ___ ___Safe, cheap and readily available
prevalence of dental caries 5-11 yo26%
prevalence of dental caries 12-1767%
prevalence of dental caries in adults94%
3 bacterial Caries culpritsS. Mutans (main), S. Sobrinus, Lactobacillus
Which bacteria must be involved to colonize a caries biofilm culture?S. Mutans
Finding ways to prolong the availability of antigens in the secretory ___ (immunoglobulin) will improve dental caries vaccinations.IgA
Major salivary glands produce _________% of total salivary sIgA70%
___'s of IgA produced is sIgA2/3's
Primary function of IgAPrevent microbial adherence
Bacterial IgA-specific proteases found in what microbe? S. sanguis
Caries is correlated with titers of what antibodies?sIgA & IgM (specific to S. Mutans)
T/F: Elevated sIgA antibodies has shown to be protective against caries and dental infectionsFalse (hasn't been shown)
Antigen 1 & 2 vaccines for S. Mutans would prevent ____ of the microbebinding
2 adjuvants that prolong IgA responseCholera Toxin B & E.coli heat-liable toxin
2 favored routes for Active Immunity vaccinationsOral and Intranasal
What produces higher titers, active or passive immunity vaccines?Active
Did Dr. Baban suggest that increased vaccination is related (causally) to increased incidence of Autism?Yes (but this is not true. Autism more common because diagnostic criteria were expanded AND greater public awareness following movie Rain Man)

Protective Antibodies and their mechanisms of action

Question Answer
Inactivate toxic microbial protein productsAntitoxins
facilitate phagocytosisOpsonins
damage microbial cell membraneLysins
Prevent adhesion to host cell componentsAnti-Adhesions
Prevent proliferation of microorganismsNeutralizing antibodies

T Lymphocyte maturation and dev

Question Answer
3 categories of Immune System cellsGranulocytes, Lymphocytes (non granular), NK cells
5 types of GranulocytesNeutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils, Mast cells, Monocytes
2 types of monocyteDendritic cells, Macrophages
2 types of LymphocytesT-cells & B-cells
What is the lineage of NK cells?Lymphoid (from lymphocytes?)
T cells are made in the ___ and mature in the ____Bone Marrow; Thymus
Immature T cells start off as double negative ... what does this mean?CD4- and CD8-
The first step of T cell maturation is to convert them from ___ ___ to ___ ___Double Negative (CD4-, CD8-); Double Positive (CD4+, CD8+)
Where does T cell selection take place?Cortex (thymus)
What is NEGATIVE selection in T cell maturation?Cells that bind to SELF antigens are told to Apoptose
What is the result of faulty T cell negative selection?Hypersensitivity
What is POSITIVE selection in T cell maturation?Cells that bind to MHC receptors are activated and become positive for CD4 or CD8
T cells are mature when they enter what part of Thymus?Medulla
CD4+ cells become ___ ___ cellsT helper cells
CD8+ cells become ___ ___ cellsCytotoxic T cells
Activation of T cells requires what?Antigen
What are two ways that T cells can be activated by antigens?free-floating, from APC
What cytokine is responsible for 90% of immune reactions?IL-2
Activation leads to production of First Cytokine... which is ____IL-2
MHC Class 1 interacts with which T cells?CD8+ (cytotoxic T)
MHC Class 2 interacts with which T cells?CD4+ (T helper)
What 3 types of cells develop from Lymphocyte progenitor?T cell progenitor, B cell progenitor, & NK cell
What type of cell is associated with killing virally infected cells?Cytotoxic T cells
What receptor is the inhibitory receptor for NK cells?MHC Class 1
Why are viruses killed by NK cells?They have impaired function and so fail to produce sufficient MHC Class 1 receptors (which means they don't stop NK cells)
What are the universal surface antigens for T cells?CD2 & CD3 (4 and 8 are an either/or deal)
What are the universal surface antigens that are important for B cells?CD 19 & CD 21
method to separate PBMC's from blood using centrfuge and a special materialFicoll-Hypaque Separation
special cells that are not numerous but are important for switching off production of IL-2T-regulator cells

Let's play T cell or B cell

Question Answer
Develop (mature) in the ThymusT cell
Identified by "rosette" formation with SRBC's (sheep RBC's)T cell
End products of activation are cytokinesT cell
Antigens include CD2, CD3, CD4 & CD8T cell
Located in paracortical region of lymph nodesT cell
Develop (mature) in bone marrowB cell
Found in bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodesB cell
Identified by surface immunoglobulinB cell
End product of activation is antibodyB cell
Antigens include CD19, CD20, CD21, CD40, MHC Class 2B cell
Located in cortical region of lymph nodesB cell


Question Answer
mutation in cell that renders it unable to produce an essential substanceAuxotrophic mutation
enzymes that recognize inappropriate 3D structures for DNA and remove mutant bases (the T), which are corrected by DNA polymerases (to C). endonuclease
how many base pairs are in the bacterial genome?5 million
how many base pairs are in the human genome?3 billion
AGTC... which base pairs pair up together?A&T, G&C
mutations that kill organismlethal mutations
mutations that kill organism under specific circumstancesconditional lethal mutations
mutation where no detectable change in expressionsilent mutation
mutation that creates a different sequence in amino acidsmissense mutation
mutation that results in a stop codon where one was not beforenonsense mutation
mutation that skips a base pair affecting everything down streamframe shift mutation
ability of a molecule to exist in more than one chemical form by opening of a double bondtautomerism
main cause of physical mutationUV light
UV light disrupts DNA and causes mutation by forming ____ ____thymine dimers
Xrays damage DNA by causing what?DNA strand breaks
Alkylators are chemical causes of DNA mutation... they act by ____-ing the DNA... creating a mutated ____Alkylating; Hydrocarbon
What type of mutation can happen to people that grill too muchChemical mutation (alkylators)
An example of a covalent modifierNitrous Acid (oxidative deamination of bases)
Ethidium Bromide is an example of an ______Intercalator (frameshift)
Primary control for SOS regulon is production of ___ which serves as a repressor for ___LexA; RecA
High levels of _________ keep SOS turned off during normal cells life. SOS only kicks in under unfavorable conditionsLexA
When damage occurs- ____ binds to ssDNA and activates its co-protease activitiyRecA
IN presence of antibiotics... some bacteria initiate an adaptive mutation response by _____ responseSOS response
Bacteria adapt their ____ which affects their ____ in order to be resistant to PenicillinPorins; Permeability
Bacteria can respond to antibiotics iwith resistance... by altered ____ or altered ____Permeability; Targets
Genetic transfer of 700-1800bp that jumps and occurs in virtually all organismsTransposition (jumping genes)
Tn3 (transposon3) encodes for ___ resistanceAmpicillin
Tn5 (transposon 5) encodes for ___ resistancekanamycin
the direct transfer of plasmids (or chromosomes) between bacteriaConjugation (via sex pill)
Sex pillus forms with gram ____ conjugation but not gram _____ conjugationnegative; not positive
passage of genetic material between bacteria by a virusTransduction (phage mediated)
uptake of naked DNA in gram positive bacteriatransformation
enzyme that degrades portions of cell wall to expose DNA binding protein and nucleaseAutolysin
In transformation, DNA is taken up as a single strand Process requires ___ or ___Mg; Ca
Integration of DNA taken up for transformation in gram positive bacteria are very sensitive to _____ in the environmentDNAase
Gram negative transformation takes up DNA in its _____ stranded formdouble
Gram positive transformation takes up DNA in its ____ stranded formsingle
•Laboratory strains of bacteria can be induced to competence under high ____ concentrations and ____ temperature conditionsCalcium; Cold
____ Cycle leads to the production of new phage particles which are released by lysis of the host Lytic Cycle
type of tautomerism seen in base pairs is ___-___ tautomerismKeto-enol

genetic terminology (matching)

Question Answer
GenotypeDNA sequence
Phenotypeobservable properties (how something looks)
Haploidsingle copy of each chromosome
Diploidcarries 2 copies of each chromosome
Alleleeach copy of a gene