robbypowell's version from 2015-11-04 02:04

Antigen processing for T Lymphocyte Recognition (mouthful)

Question Answer
In "thymic education" Commitment to CD4+ or CD8+ T depends on what?MHC Class that is encountered
Encountering MHC Class 1 during "thymic education" leads to what resultant T lymphocyte?CD8+
Encountering MHC Class 2 during "thymic education" leads to what resultant T lymphocyte?CD4+
what type of cell is CD4+?T helper cell
what type of cell is CD8+?Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte
Which are more prevalent, T Helper cells or Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes?T helper (MHC class 2 more prevalent in thymus)
Is T cell acquired or innate immunity?Acquired*
Do B Lymphocytes have specific or nonspecific antigen receptors?non-specific
Do T Lymphocytes have specific or nonspecific antigen receptors?specific
Which MHC class is endogenous?Class 1
Which MHC class is exogenous?Class 2
Do viruses in cytosol activate MHC Class 1 or 2 pathway? what cell is activated by the receptor on cell surface?class 1; CD8 Cytotoxic T cells
Do bacterial extracelllar pathogens activate MHC Class 1 or 2 pathway? what cell is activated by the receptor on cell surface?class 2; CD4 T Helper cells (antibody production)
Do bacterial intracellular pathogens activate MHC Class 1 or 2 pathway? what cell is activated by the receptor on cell surface?Class 2; CD4 T Helper cells (cytokine production)
What is the MAJOR antigen presenting cells?Dendritic cells
What are the dendritic cells of the skin?Langerhans cells
What are the dendritic cells of the brain?Neuroglia
What are the dendritic cells of eye?Astrocytes/Microglia
How do dendritic cells ingest antigens?Pinocytosis
T/F: Lymphocyte activation is a self-limited processTrue
T/F: Mature T cells are naive until encounter or are presented with an antigenTrue
What are the professional phagocytic cells?Macrophages
How do macrophages ingest antigens?Phagocytosis
Which are more effective at activating naive T lymphocytes, Dendritic cells or Macrophages?Dendritic cells
Which are more effective at activating memory cells, Dendritic cells or Macrophages?Macrophages
What 3 types of cells can act as Antigen Presenting cells?Dendritic cells (primarily), Macrophages, B Lymphocytes
What type of antigen activate T cells Polyclonally and can have pathological results due to the level of cytokine production?Superantigen
class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine releasesuperantigen
which class of MHC is associated with Superantigens?MHC Class 2
What type of syndrome is characterized by lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly with greatly increased numbers of lymphocytesAutoimmune Lympho Proliferative Syndrome (ALPS)
Autoimmune Lympho-Proliferative Syndrome is associated with a dominant mutation in what gene?FAS
___ positive dendritic cells stimulate naive T cellsB7-positive
_______ provides a second signal which is necessary for activation of naïve lymphocytesCo-stimulation
An ANERGIZED T Cell produces ____ but not ____IL2 receptor, but not IL2
2 ways that immune cells interactDirect contact & Cytokine signaling
IL4 causes TH0 cell to turn into ___ cellTH2 cell
IL12 causes TH0 cell to turn into ___ cellTH1 cell
Which class of T helper cell is pro-inflammatory?Class 1
T Helper Class 1 produces what 3 given biomolecules?IFN gamma, IL-2 & IL-12
Which class of T helper cell is anti-inflammatory and pro-antibody production?Class 2
3 types of receptors on B cellsMHC2, antigen, & CD40
T Helper Class 2 produces what 2 biomoleculesIL-4 & IL-10
attachment of co-stimulatory signal is ____ on T cells and ____ on Antigen Presenting cellsCD28; CD28ligand/B71/B72
Anergization leads to tolerance to ____ antigensself
Cytotoxic T cells produce ____ which helps break down infected cellPerforin
FAS and FASL are also known as ____ and _____CD95 & CD95L
What is the time lag of Type 1 Hypsens Rxn?"1 second to minute"
T/F: Allergens are hydrophobicFalse (OT)
Atopic Allergens are associated with what type Hypsens Rxn?Type 1


Question Answer
Define: Heightened state of immune responsiveness (responding to non-harmful antigens)Hypersensitivity
what type of hypersensitivity is activated by antigens attaching to IgE on mast cells and resulting in degranulation?Type 1
What Immunoglobulin on the surface of Mast cells involved in Type 1 hypersensitivity?IgE
What cells involved in initiating Type 1 Hypersensitivity rxn?Mast cell
What type of hypersensitivity rxn involves red blood cells being coated with antibodies and apoptosis induced by macrophages?Type 2
What type of hypersensitivity rxn associated with blood transfusions (gone wrong)?Type 2
What Immunoglobulins coating RBC's in Type 2 Hypersensitivity Rxn?IgG or IgM
What type of hypersensitivity rxn involves antigen-antibody complexes (soluble) being deposited in the tissue?Type 3
What is the result of Type 3 Hypersensitivity RXN's?Tissue Destruction (by neutrophil)
What type of hypersensitivity rxn involves a direct relationship between antigens and T cells?Type 4
What cell type is associated with Type 4 Hypersensitivity rxn's?T-lymphocyte
All Hypersensitivty rxn's involve antigen-____ interaction except for Type ___ which has antigen-____ interactionAntibody; Type 4; T-celld
Which type of hypersensitivity takes a longer time?Type 4 (t-cell)
Which types of hypersensitivity are considered "immediate"?Types 1, 2 & 3
Type 4 hypersensitivity can take between ___ and ___ hours to activate24-48 hours
What are the 2 big differences between Type 1, 2, & 3 Hypsens Rxn's and Type 4?1,2,3 are antibody-antigen, 4 is Tcell-antigen; 1,2,3 are immediate... 4 is delayed
Define: an inherited tendency to respond to naturally occuring inhaled and ingested Allergens with continued production of IgEAtopy
T/F: transferring serum from one person to another can transfer Type 1 hypersensitivityTrue
Which Immunoglobulin Synthesized in lymphoid tissue of respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts?IgE
IgE synthesized where?Lymphoid tissues of Upper Respiratory tracts & GI tract
IgE is controlled by ____ cells through ____ (even in normal conditions)T-helper 1 cells; IFN-gamma
How does sensitization to Type 1 Hypersensitivity happen?Antigen --> APC --> MHC Class 2 --> T-Helper 2 --> IL-4 & IL-13 --> Plasma cells --> IgE --> Mast cells
What is the surface receptor on Mast cells & Basophils for IgE?FC-receptor I (that is letter, not number)
Type 1 hypersensitivity rxn's involve IgE which is produced by which Type of T-Helper cell?T-Helper 2 (causing B cell maturation)
What messengers are used by TH2 cells to induce B cell maturation into plasma cells?IL-4 & IL-13
What influx is associated with Mast Cell degranulation?Calcium Influx (which then promotes arachidonic acid)
What 2 cells are associated with clinical symptoms of Type 1 Hypsens rxn? (carry immunoglobulin)Mast Cells & Basophils
Most famous preformed Mediator of Type 1 Hypsens RxnHistamine
List 5 Preformed Mediators of Type 1 Hypsens RxnTHENP (i eat something i'm allergic to THEN Pee) Tryptase, Histamine, ECF-A, (eosinofil chemotactic factor of Anaphylaxis), NCF-A (Neutrophil """"), Protease

match with type of hypersensitivity

Question Answer
Immune Mediator: IgE1
Immune Mediator: IgG2
Immune Mediator: IgG or IgM3
Immune Mediator: T cells4
Antigen: Autologous only1
Antigen: Autologous or Heterologous2, 3 & 4
No Complement Involvement1 & 4
Yes Complement Involvement2 & 3
Mechanism: Release of mediators from Mast cells or Basophils1
Mechanism: Cytolysis due to antibody and complement2
Mechanism: Tissue deposits of antigen-antibody complexes (soluble)3
Mechanism: Release of cytokines (t-cell)4
Examples: Anaphylaxis, Hay fever, Food allergies, Asthma1
Examples: Transfusion rxn's, Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia2
Examples: Serum sickness, Arthus rxn. Lupus3
Examples: Contact Dermatitis, Tuberculin test4
Short Time Lag, IgE, Allergens (Atopic Ags)1

hypersens part 2

Question Answer
4 Treatment of Immediate HypersensitivityAvoidance, Drugs and medications, Hyposensitization, Monoclonal Abs (Omalizumab)
Best approach to treating Immediate HypersensitivityAvoidance
Small periodic exposures to allergen in order to block antibodiesHyposensitization
3 types of testing for Immediate HypersensitivitySkin Test (In vivo), Total IgE Test(In vitro), Antigen Specific IgE testing
Two types of Antigen specific IgE testingRAST (Radio-allergo-sorbent Test) & Microarray
What is an example of an In Vitro Total IgE Test ?RIST (Radio-Immuno-Sorbent Test)
What type of Hyp Sens causes Hemolytic Disease of the NewbornType 2
Type A blood cells has Antigen ___ and Antibody ___A; B
What antigens do type O blood cells have?none
What antibodies do type O blood cells have?A & B
Hemolytic disease of the newborn can happen when father is ___ positive and mother is ___ negativeRh+ (father) ; Rh- (mother)
T/F: Hemolytic disease of the newborn manifests on the first pregnancy for an Rh+ father and an Rh- motherFalse (happens on second and after)
What type of hypersensitivity is associated with the injection of antigens?Type 3 (Arthus Rxn)
When is Anti-Rh serum administered to mother?7 months and 72 hours
Which antibody is involved in Newborn Hemolytic Disease?IgG (can cross placenta)
Which Hypersensitivity type is associated with soluble antigen-antibody complexes?Type 3
SLE and Rheumatoid Arthritis are what type of Hypersensitivity Rxn?Type 3
Contact dermatitis caused by what type hypersensitivity rxn?Type 4
Tattoos and rxns in response to crowns are what type rxn?Type 4 (contact dermatitis)