robbypowell's version from 2015-11-01 01:06

Active/Passive Immunity

Question Answer
When did Edward Jenner’s introduce vaccination?1796
Edward Jenner's first vaccination used ____ to protect against _____Cow Pix; Small Pox
Edward Jenner's vaccine was noteworthy because it was the first use of a ______ ______ vaccineLive Attenuated
The goal of immunization of any individual is the ____ of disease.Prevention
The goal of immunization of a population is the ____ of disease.Eradication
_____ IMMUNIZATION: involves the administration of an immunogen (usually as a modified infectious agent or toxin) which results in the production of immunoglobulinsACTIVE
_____ IMMUNIZATION: involves the administration of either pre-formed immunoglobulins (Igs) or primed cells.Passive Immunization
Two sources of "immunizing Ig's"Humans or Animals that have developed immunity to disease
3 examples of diseases that are treated with Toxin Neutralization Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus (DPT).
OPSONIZATION is a mechanism commonly used in _____ vaccinesbacterial vaccines
COMPLEMENT-MEDIATED LYSIS is a mechanism commonly used in _____ vaccinesbacterial vaccines
ANTI-ADHESION is a mechanism used in which vaccine? (e.g.)Sabin polio vaccine
Primary active immunization produces protective Ig levels ____ (faster/slower) than the incubation period of most infectious diseasesSlower
____ immunizations in a previously immune individual provides a rapid secondary (anamnestic) increase in immunity (Igs).Booster
definition: denoting an enhanced reaction of the body's immune system to an antigen that is related to an antigen previously encountered.Anamnestic
T/F: All vaccines licensed in the U.S. have been shown to be “safe” and effective.True
T/F: All vaccines have adverse reactions associated with them.True
Three factors taken into account for risk-benefit relationship of vaccinationLikelihood infection will cause disease, Morbidity assoc w disease, adverse effects (frequency & severity)
Type of Vaccine produced from “live” viruses or bacteria which are capable of infecting and replicating within the recipientLive attenuated
What vaccine is used for Tuberculosis?Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)
Pathogenicity of vaccine strains has been eliminated or greatly reduced in what type of vaccineLive Attenuated
How is pathogenicity of viral vaccine strains reduced for Live Attenuated viral vaccines?Rapid Transfer in Tissue Culture
How is pathogenicity of bacterial vaccine strains reduced for Live Attenuated bacterial vaccines?genetic modification
Advantages of Live Attenuated vaccinesHigh Seroconversion rate, Long-lasting Immunity, most likely to induce cytotoxic cell-mediated immunity, Herd effect
What is the Herd effect?less likely to spread b/c more immunized (spread of vaccine?)
T/F: Live attenuated vaccine strains can revert to their pathogenic strainTrue
Should vaccines be given to pregnant women?no
Should vaccines be given to immunocompromised patients?no
Post-viral encephalitis can be an adverse reaction from what type of vaccine?Live Attenuated
Type of vaccine organism is exposed to heat or chemicals such that the organism is no longer capable of replication within the hostInactivated vaccine
Which vaccines are safer, Inactivated or Live Attenuated?Inactivated
What Inactivated vaccine can produce encephalitis-like symptoms?Pertussis
What type of vaccine Consists of specific purified macromolecules derived from infectious organismsPurified vaccine
What is the proportion of immunized people that produce protective Ig's in response to a vaccine?Seroconversion rate
3 categories of AdjuvantsImmune Potentiators (i.e. TLR agonists), Antigen Delivery Systems (Emulsions, microparticles: attractive to APCs) & Integrated Adjuvants (combination of both)
2 currently licensed AdjuvantsAlum (Aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate) & MF59 (oil-water emulsion in flu vaccines)
What is the most commonly used Adjuvant?Alum (gel)
What type of vaccine contains Naked DNA in plasmid form to be taken up by somatic cellsDNA vaccine
Are cytotoxic T cells induced with recombinant DNA vaccines?No
Are cytotoxic T cells induced with inactivated vaccines?No
What type of vaccine expresses antigens of target viruses but using non pathogenic viruses?Live Viral Vectors
2 viruses used for live viral vectorsVaccinia & CanaryPox
Antibody (Igs), either as whole serum or as fractionated immune (gamma) globulin, that is primarily IgG may be obtained from human or animal donors, who have recovered from an infectious disease or have been immunized.Passive Immunization
Immunization technique with antibodies that may provide immediate protection to an antibody-deficient individualPassive Immunization
What type of immunization is appropriate when no vaccine exists?Passive
What type of immunization is appropriate for individuals that cannot produce antibodies?Passive
What type of immunization is appropriate for individuals who may contract the disease before a 7-10 day period?Passive (insufficient time for active)
Passive Immunization immunoglobulins are almost all ____ isotypeIgG
Which method of Passive Immunization delivery allows for a higher dosing?IVIG (intravenous)
What type of Passive Immunization delivery elicits fever and vasodilation phenomenon in 2.5% of recipients?IVIG (intravenous)
What type of Adjuvant is an antagonist to Toll-Like Receptors?Immune Potentiators

dumb table at end

Question Answer
Black widow spider biteAntivenin widow spider, equine (IM,IV
Botulism ABE polyvalent antitoxin, equine (IM, IV)
Cytomegalovirus CMV immune globulin (IV)
DiphtheriaDiphtheria antitoxin, equine (IM)
Hepatitis AHep A Immune globulin (IM)
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) (IM)
Hypogamma- globulinemiaImmune globulin (IM, IV)
Measles Immune globulin (IM)
RabiesRabies immune globulin b (IM)
Rh isoimmunization (erythroblastosis fetalis)Rh0 (D) immune globulin (IM)
SnakebiteEquine sourced antivenom (IV)
Tetanus Tetanus immune globulinc (IM)
VacciniaVaccinia immune globulin (IM)
Varicella Varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) (IM)d

Type of vaccine for a disease

Question Answer
Sabin Polio vaccineLive Attenuated
Bacillus Calmette Guerin (TB)Live Attenuated
Hemophilus influenzae type BPurified (polysaccharide)
subunit influenzaPurified (surface glycoproteins)
hepatitis BRecombinant DNA vaccine

desired Ig for different locations or diseases

Question Answer
Deep tissueIgG
Blood StreamIgG
Mucosal SurfacesSIgA
Cariogenic bacteriaSIgA
Facultative Intracellular ParasitesCytotoxic T cells
VirusesCytotoxic T Cells
TuberculosisCytotoxic T Cells
FungiCytotoxic T cells
ProtozoaCytotoxic T cells

Recent badges