robbypowell's version from 2016-05-02 16:22


Question Answer
t/f: HIV virus is a retrovirusTrue
t/F: HIV virus is envelopedTrue
t/f: HIV virus in non-envelopedFalse (is enveloped)
how many strands of what type of genetic material are in the core of an HIV virion?2 strands RNA
HIV is in what subfamily of RetrovirusesLentivirus subfamily
which is faster and more aggressive... HIV1 or HIV2?HIV1 is faster and more aggressive
what HIV gene is "cross reactional protein which controls all proteins under that area"?Tat (gene)
what HIV gene is important for attachment and integrity of the virus?Rev (gene)
the 3' end of HIV genetic material is responsible for what?Envelope proteins
gene of auxiliary protein that allows HIV virus to attach to CD4 helper cells?Nef (gene & auxiliary protein)
what HIV gene is only found in human and chimpanzee HIV viruses?VPU (gene) (analog for VPX)
What HIV gene is not found in human and chimpanzee HIV viruses, but is found in other animal HIV viruses?VPX (analog for VPU)
would HIV with VPU gene given to non-human and non-chimpanzee animals cause disease?No
would HIV with VPX gene given to non-human and non-chimpanzee animals cause disease?Yes
would HIV with VPX gene given to human and chimpanzee subjects cause disease?no
would HIV with VPU gene given to human and chimpanzee subjects cause disease?Yes
The origin of HIV1 and HIV2 were cross species transmission of what viruses respectively?SIVcpz (chimpanzee) (HIV1) & SIVsmr (sooty mongaby) (HIV2)
term: ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus that must reverse to the Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) before reproducing/replicatingRetrovirus
HIV virus invades what mainly what cells to replicate?Helper T cells
reason we have long incubation time for HIV infection?time the virus needs to process the RNA into DNA form (in order to be actionable)
HIV1 is _____ virulence (high/low), _____ infectivity (high/low), and has _____ prevalence (West African/Global)High; High; Global
HIV2 is _____ virulence (high/low), _____ infectivity (high/low), and has _____ prevalence (West African/Global)Low; Low; West African (regionally specific)
Is a person with Stage 1 HIV virus infectious?yes (CAN INFECT OTHERS)
short-duration flu like illness during Stage 1 HIV infection occurs ___ to ___ weeks after infection1-6 weeks
are HIV antibodies detectable in the blood of asymptomatic Stage 2 HIV patient?YES
average duration of stage 2 HIVTen years
what cells is targeted by HIV?CD4+ Helper T cells
Patients can be most contagious during what stage of HIV?Stage 1
What organs primarily affected by HIV virus?Lymphoid organs
Most common source of pediatric AIDSMother (vertical transfer)
2 bacterial opportunistic infections associated with AIDSTuberculosis & Strep pneumonia
3 viral opportunistic infections associated with AIDSKaposi Sarcoma, Herpes, & Influenza
2 opportunistic Fungal infections associated with AIDSCandida & Cryptococcus
an example of a parasitic opportunistic infection associated with AIDSPneumocystis carinii
Evidence of infection by HIV can be detected in what 3 ways?(1)Virus Isolation, (2) Western Blot (antibodies in serum) & (3)Measurement of viral nucleic acid or antigens (RNA amplification, RT-PCR, DNA PCR)
Most reliable detection method of HIVWestern Blot (of antibodies to virus)
High number of which Helper cell and low number of which helper cell can be an indication of HIV?high CD8+ and low CD4+
# of people living with HIV in 201436.9 million
# of people newly infected with HIV in 20142 million
# AIDS deaths in 20141.2 million
4 methods of HIV transmissionVertical (mother to child), Sexual, Blood, and Dirty needles
When several HIV drugs, typically three or four, are taken in combination, the approach is known as ?HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)
IF viral load is over ____ then we would want to start HAART therapy10,000
what treatment for HIV/AIDs blocks CD4 receptor so HIV cannot go into the cell and the virus will be killedCHEMOKINE (CCR5 and CXCR4) RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST
CCR5 receptor is associated with which cells...?Macrophages
CXCR4 receptor is associated with which cells?CD4+ Helper T cells
this type of drugs are broadly classified by the phase of the retrovirus life-cycle that the drug inhibits.Anti-Retroviral drugs
What class of Anti-retroviral would not allow HIV viral RNA to transcript to DNA?Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (RTI)
3 types of RTI's?Nucleoside (NARTI), Nucleotide (NtARTI) & NNRTI (non-nucleoside)
"Most important" Anti-retroviral drug class?Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTI's)
Most effective the of RTI?Nucleoside RTI
____ was the first approved treatment for HIV, sold under the names Retrovir and RetrovisAzidothymidine (AZT) (aka Zidovudine)
T/F: Zidovudine (Azidothymidine, AZT) slows HIV spread significantly, but does not stop it entirelyTrue
T/F: Zidovudine (Azidothymidine, AZT) stops the spread of HIV entirelyFalse (slows, does not stop)
Zidovudine (Azidothymidine,AZT) was initially sold under what two names?Retrovir & Retrovis
second class of antiretroviral drugs developedProtease Inhibitors
what class of HIV drugs prevent replication by inhibiting activity of proteases?Protease Inhibitors
class of antiretroviral drug designed to block a viral enzyme that inserts the viral genome into the DNA of the host cell.Integrase Inhibitors
viral enzyme that inserts the viral genome into the DNA of the host cell.Integrase
class of drugs interferes with the binding, fusion and entry of an HIV virion to a human cellEntry Inhibitors aka Fusion Inhibitors
protein receptor found on the surface of helper T cells in the human immune system that are susceptible to HIVCD4
protein on HIV surface that binds to the CD4 receptorgp120
two chemokine co-receptors found on CD4+ cellsCCR5 & CXCR4
HIV protein that penetrates the cell membranep41
antiretroviral drug class that inhibit the last step in gag processing in which the viral capsid polyprotein is cleaved, thereby blocking the conversion of the polyprotein into the mature capsid proteinMaturation inhibitors
example of Maturation InhibitorAlpha Interferon
proteins made and released by lymphocytes in response to the presence of pathogens—such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites—or tumor cellsInterferon
Why are HIV vaccines difficult to create?Fast mutation & Not expressed in all infected cells
t/F: HIV is becoming milder and milderTrue (apparently)

match stages of HIV virus with description

Question Answer
Short, flu-like illness or with "no symptoms at all"Stage 1
Asymptomatic periodStage 2
HIV virus level in blood drops to very low levelsStage 2
mild symptoms, with beginning of immune system deteriorationStage 3
emergence of opportunistic infections and cancerStage 3
Immune system weakens illnesses become more severeStage 4
AIDS diagnosisStage 4
HIV patients most contagious (likely to infect others ... high viral load and few symptoms)Stage 1

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