robbypowell's version from 2016-03-30 14:33

Intro Virology

Question Answer
T/F: Most viruses are species specificTrue (most but not ALL viruses)
T/F: All viruses are species specificFalse (MOST but not all)
The CORE of a virus is made up of _____ or _____ but only in one or two cases ______.DNA or RNA; Both (DNA & RNA)
combination of proteins that surrounds a viral coreCapsid
Capsid is made up of what?Proteins ("combination of")
The Nucleocapsid is made up of what to components?Nucleic acid core & Capsid
Viral Nucleic Acid Core and Capsid are the two components that make up the _______Nucleocapsid
Feature of a virus that allows it to look like it belongs in cell...Envelope ("gets envelope after entering cell")
The spikes on the outside of a viral envelope are part of the envelope and made of ______Glycoprotein
subunit of the capsid, an outer covering of protein that protects the genetic material of a virus... _______ self-assemble to form the capsidCapsomeres
subunit of a viral envelopePeplomers
definition: complete, infective form of a virus outside a host cell, with a core of RNA or DNA and a capsid.Virion
some viruses send their keycard-access proteins to the surface of infected cell causing host cell to merge with other cells... creating a large multinucleated cell... this is calledSynctia
what is ID 50, in terms of viruses?the quantity required to infect 50% of tested population (i guess in cell culture that would be cells?)
what is LD 50, in terms of viruses?quantity required to be lethal to 50% of tested population
what shape of viruses are more stable to heat?Icosahedral viruses
for virus culture... what are the two methods?Egg culture, or cell culture
the cells and tissues of a host which support growth of a particular virus or bacteriaTissue Tropism (where can they grow/thrive)
What is the tissue tropism of MumpsLocalized, Parotid glands
Congenital contraction (during first trimester) of what viral pathogen leads to cataracts, heart defects, micro-cephaly, mental retardation & deafnessRubella (this was specifically listed on slide... there are other viruses that cause congenital concern)
How does Rabies travel through the body?via the nervous system (not blood or lymph)
dissemination throughout the body of viral bodies by blood is called ______viremia
Two MAIN means of viral dissemination after infectionBlood (viremia) & Lymphatics (can be carried by cells throughout body or travel via nervous system as well)
the presence of appropriate cell surface molecule to act as a virus receptor is what makes a cell/tissue ______Susceptible (determinant of Tropism)
the presence of appropriate cell transcription factors to switch on viral genes, and/or cell enzyme pathways to produce viral proteins is what determines a cell/tissue's _______Permissively (determinant of Tropism)
primary clinical manifestation symptoms that are non-specific (flu-like symptoms") is what stage of disease course?Prodrome
an important part of Innate Immunity to Virus Infection... ______ produced in response to viral dsRNAIFN-alpha/beta (Type 1 IFN)
IFN-alpha/beta (Type 1 IFN) (innate immunity to viral infection) is produced in response to what?Viral DS RNA
E.G of a LATENT virusHerpes Simplex Virus
IgM elevation (without IgG) likely means what stage of infection?Early primary (before IgG elevation)
IgG elevation and declining IgM likely means what stage of infection?later stage primary infection
IgG and IgM elevation likely means what stage of infection?Secondary infection (this has happened before) or CHRONIC infection
What immunoglobulins would you expect to be increased with chronic infection?
what are 3 effects of IFN?Induce resistance of neighboring cells, increase antigen presentation (and MHC Class 1) in all cells, & Activate NK cells
What is released by a virally infected cell that induces resistance in neighboring uninfected cells?Interferon
Interferon increases antigen presentation and what surface protein on all cell types?MHC Class 1
Interferon activates what cell type?NK cells
NK cells will kill cells without what inhibitory surface protein?MHC Class 1 ("show me your papers") (if you don't have papers you must be a virus or cancer and so are killed)
The first cells chronologically to respond and kill off virally infected cells are which cells... then later what cells?NK cells; T-cells
If a cell is nonpermissive but is susceptible to a virus then a virus can become integrated into the cell... this cell can undergo _____transformation


LOOK at chart on last page and try to decipher what is useful from this

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