robbypowell's version from 2016-03-08 02:19


Question Answer
Is Clostridia Spore-forming?Yes
Clostridia is Gram ____Positive
What type of metabolism does Clostridium utilize (aerobic, anaerobic, facultative anaerobe)Anaerobic
The main virulence factors for clostridium are _____ and ______Proteins & Toxins
Definition: Plant, fungus, or microorganism that lives on dead/decaying materialSaprophytes
Clostridium Grow well on ______ enriched mediumBlood
Do clostridium utilize sugars, proteins or both?both
Tetanus is caused by what species Clostridia?C. tetani
food-poisioning is caused by what species clostridiaC perfringens
tetanus is caused by what species Clostridia?C. tetani
what is the only species of Clostridium that can tolerate oxygen?C. Perfringens
Pseudomembranous colitis is caused by what species Clostridia?C. difficile
Botulism is caused by what species Clostridia?C. botulinum
T/F: Clostridium perfringens is found in the normal flora of the colon and vaginaTrue
What type (A-E) of Clostridium perfringens is the human pathogen?Type A
What are the 4 proteins/toxins associated with Clostridium perfringens?Collagenase, proteinase, Phospholipase (aka Alpha-toxin***), & collegians
Food poisoning caused by C. perfringens is associated with production of ______, causing watery diarrhea with little vomitingEnterotoxin
diagnostic test for Clostridium perfringens... looking for the "stormy-clot reaction"Litmus Milk test
diagnostic test for Clostridium perfringens... on a specialized agar plate with egg yolk... testing for ______ reactionNagler's reaction
species of Clostridia with a "drumstick" appearanceC. tetani (Tetanus)
2 Protein/toxin associated with Clostridium tetaniTetanospasmin** (extremely potent!!!) & Tetanolysin (less powerful)
Tetano-______ is an extremely potent toxin, and Tetano-_____ a less potent toxin... both associated with Clostridium tetaniTetano-SPASMIN & Tetano-LYSIN
T/F: Tetanus vaccine is effective after contracting Clostridium tetaniTRUE
T/F: Tetanus vaccine is only effective if administered before contractionFALSE
Risus sardonicus, Trismus & Opisthotonos are signs associated with what diseaseTetanus (C. tetani)
Tetanus exotoxin acts by doing what to the body?blocking inhibitory neurotransmitters at motor nerve ends
Death by Tetanus is ultimately caused by _______Asphyxia (inability to breathe) (tetany to respiratory muscles)
What is the "most efficient" treatment for Tetanus?Proper wound debridement
Treatments for tetanus are administration of a potent ____, proper wound debridement, and administration of ____Antitoxin (A,B, & E) ; penicillin
Clostridium difficile is found in the feces of ___ to ___% of adults and all healthy infants3-6%
Clostridium difficile causes what disease?Pseudomembraneous colitis
Pseudomembraneous colitis can be fatal if left untreated because it causes _____Dehydration (excessive watery diarrhea)
Potent Enterotoxin, ________, and potent cytotoxin, _______, are responsible for the pathogenicity of Pseudomembraneous colitisToxin A; Toxin B
What is the most deadly toxin on earth?Botulinum
Clostridium botulinum is the main cause for ______, (although it is sometimes caused by C. butyricum)Botulism
C. botulinum spores are highly resistant to ______heat
lethal dose of Botulinum toxin is ____micrograms/kilogram1-2
C. botulinum A & B are associated with a variety of foods, however type ____ is associated with fish productsType E
Botulinum toxin (in a larger sense) interferes with the transfer of ______ to musclesAcetylcholine (so causes inability to contract)
The light chain of Botulinum toxin degrades ______ receptors, which are necessary for Acetylcholine transportSNARE receptors
Double vision, Blurred vision, Drooping eyelids, Slurred speech, Difficulty swallowing & Muscle weakness are adult symptoms of what disease caused by a species of ClostridiumBotulism (C. Botulinum)
Definitive diagnostic test for Adult BotulismSerum test for Botulinum Toxin
T/F: Botulinum toxin can be detected in the blood serum of adultstrue
T/F: Botulinum toxin can be detected in the blood serum of infantsFALSE
2 main food sources of Botulism contractionCanned tuna & canned beans
Main treatment for Botulism is the administration of ______ and to be placed on _____Antitoxin (A,B & E); paced on ventilation
Toxin that has been thought to be a potential threat for bioterrorism, (because it can be passed through air, water, or food and is very potent)Botulinum toxin
Botox is effective for how long?2-4 months

Corynbacterium & Propionibacteria

Question Answer
T/F: Corynebacterium are PleomorphicTRUE
T/F: Corynebacterium are consistently diplomorphicFALSE
T/F: Corynebacterium are spore-formingFalse
T/F: Corynebacterium are non-sporingTRUE
T/F: Corynebacterium are capsulatedFALSE
T/F: Corynebacterium are non-capsulateTrue
What is the metabolism of Corynebacterium (aerobe, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe)Facultative Anaerobe
Corynebacterium are Gram _____ and contain _____ acidPostive; Mycolic acid
Corynebacterium divide by _____ fissionSNAPPING fission
Diptheria is caused by what species CorynebacteriumC. Diptheriae
Diphtheria affects the _____ and _____ respiratory tractMucosa; Upper Resp tract
Diphtheria can affect the skin when in tropical settings if in conjunction with ____ or ____ infectionsS. aureus; S. pyogenes
Diptheria, a serious systemic infection, is pathogenic because of the absorption of ____exotoxin
Essentially, Diphtheria toxin acts by blocking what?Protein synthesis of host cells
Corynebacterium diphtheriae can only produce Diphtheria toxin if they're carrying bacteriophage coding what gene?TOX gene
Major diagnostic test for toxigenic Corynebacterium DiphtheriaeElek plate (lines of PRECIPITIN are positive)
A postive Elek test will have lines of _____ and this means what?Precipitin; (positive for) TOXIGENIC Corynebacterium diphtheriae
what is the name of the test for immunity to Corynebacterium diptheriae?Shick test
What Corynebacterium is found in the oral cavity and can contribute to plaque and biofilms?C. MATRUCOTTI
What 2 species of Corynebacterium are only pathogenic in immunocompromised individuals?HOFMANII & XEROSIS
Corynebacteria and Propionibacteria look very similar in they morphology, however Propionibacteria are ____ ____OBLIGATE ANAEROBES
Main cause of acne on the skinPropionibacterium ACNES

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