MICRObio test 1

robbypowell's version from 2015-09-09 11:13


Question Answer
____ is a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection or other unwanted biological invasionImmunity
It is important for us to understand the immune system b/c the prescription of ____ can shift the delicate balance.Antibiotics
Dead Pathogens, Allergens, & Food are the three ____ components of immune response in the oral cavity.TRANSIENT
Live pathogens that colonize the oral cavity are an example of ____ components of immune responsePERSISTENT
3 Main functions of the Vertebrate immune system (one word for each)Recognize, Prevent, Clear
Two distinct domains of Immunity in the Oral CavitySalivary & Gingival
All cells of the immune system originate in the bone marrow from a common precursor called ____ ____ ____ CellsPluripotent Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC).
What 3 types of cells come from the Common Lymphoid Progenitor?B cells, T cells, & NK Cells (B cells can also give rise to Plasma cells)
What 3 types of cells come from Common Myeloid Progenitors?Granulocytes (PMN's), Platelets (...), and Erythrocytes (RBC's)
What are the 5 types of Granulocytes? (or derivatives of)Basophils, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Mast cells, Monocytes (Macrophages come from Monocytes)
What are the 2 "Central Lymphoid Tissues"?Thymus & Bone Marrow
What are the 3 types of Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues?Spleen, Lymph node, MALT (Mucus Associated Lymphoid Tissue)
An extensive system of vessels that collects fluid from the tissues and returns it to the blood.Lymphatic System
The lymphatic vessels collect the lymph into a central vessel called the ____ ___ which releases the lymph into the blood stream via the left ___ ___.Thoracic Duct, Subclavian Vein


Question Answer
What is "the biggest part of innate immunity"?the Skin
____ immunity is immediate, does not require previous exposure to the pathogenic organism and is non-specificINNATE
_____ immunity requires time for induction, and is specificADAPTIVE
4 innate immune components In the Salivary domain Mucins, Lactoperoxidase, Lysozyme and Complement
Phagocytic cells are considered to be a part of the ____ immune system (adaptive or innate)INNATE
Mechanical and Chemical Barriers are part of the ____ immune system (adaptive or innate)INNATE
The Compliment system and Inflammation are part of the ____ immune system (adaptive or innate)INNATE
What is the most common Leukocyte?Neutrophils (60%)
What leukocyte is associated with Allergens?(Basophils)
What leukoocyte is associated with Parasitic Worms?Eosinophils (pink ones)
What leukocyte is associated with Acute bacterial infection?Neutrophils
What cellular component of Innate Immunity is especially important for Viral Infections and Cancers?Natural Killer Cells (Lymphocytes)
What type of cellular component of immunity can kill cells but does not need antigen presentation?NK Cells
INNATE IMMMUNE RECEPTORS do one of three things: what are the 3 things?Opsonization, Chemotaxis, Induce Cytokine production of other cells
Most microorganisms express repeating patterns of molecular structures termed ___ ___ ___ ___'sPathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS)
PAMPS are recognized by what?PRR's (Pattern Recognition Receptors)
Toll-Like Receptors are a type of what receptor group?PRR's (detect PAMPS)
TLR4 is specific to what PAMP?lipo-polysaccharide of gram neg cell walls (bacteria)
This Cytokine activates macrophage and PMN phagocytosis and killingTNF-Alpha
This Cytokine activates anti-viral mechanismsINF-Alpha-Beta
This Cytokine stimulates inflammation and feverIL-1
TNF-Alpha, INF-Alpha-Beta & IL-1 are examples of ____CYTOKINES
NADPH Oxidase disorder (X-linked) that causes formation of many Granulomas due to inability to PhagocytoseChronic Granulomatous Disease
T/F: Cytokines can bind to more than one receptor.TRUE, they are "promiscuous"
Interferons are associated with what type of disease state?VIRAL INFECTION
Two ways that interferons function to prevent viral spread1. Prevent REPLICATION 2. Opsonize Infected Cells
What are 2 cytokines that activate NK cells?IFN-Alpha/Beta􏰃 or IL-12
What messenger is secreted by NK cells that causes macrophages to increase phagocytosis?IFN-Gamma
What molecules on NORMAL cell membranes prevents NK cells from killing them?MHC Class 1 molecules


Question Answer
____ inflammation • Managed mostly by granular leukocytes- mostly neutrophilsACUTE
____ inflammation • Indicated by the presence of non-granular leukocytes like T cellsCHRONIC
Type 1 ____ results from chronic inflammation of the pancreatic beta cells. The T-cells eventually destroy the beta cellsType 1 Diabetes
____ inflammation involves the accumulation of fluidSEROUS
____ inflammation leads to running nose and watering eyes and is Most commonly caused by allergensCatarrhal
____ inflammation Most often caused by endocarditis of the heartFIBRINOUS
____ inflammation Results in bruising and is Due to hyperactivity of the immune systemHemorrhagic
____ inflammation Results in formation of pus (Tuberculosis causes lung destruction in this manner)Suppurative (Purulent)
Lab results of High levels of leukocytes in the blood indicateCHRONIC inflammation (LEUKOCYTOSIS)
Granulocytosis indicatesAcute inflammation
C-reactive protein & Fibrinogen are examples of ...High Acute Phase Proteins
Most abundant Antibody (80%)IgG
Only antibody that can cross placentaIgG
This antibody is the first to respond to infections and is an important diagnostic toolIgM
During A secondary response, does IgM spike?yes, IgM spikes during primary response & secondary response... (IgG has much greater spike during secondary response)
Which has a greater spike during Secondary response... IgG or IgM?IgG (much greater spike during secondary response)
Second most abundant antibodies in the bodyIgA (secretory antibodies)
Mnemonic if Immunoglobulins from most abundant to least...GAMED


Question Answer
Cascade of more than 30 proteins which complements the functionality of the immune system and inflammatory responseComplement System
• Considered the interface between the adaptive and innate immune responseCompliment Sytem
• All proteins of the complement system are made by the liver except for two, what are the 2?C1 (made in the small intestine) Factor D- made in the adipose tissue
• Complement proteins which increase the immune response, Includes C3a, C4a, and C5aAnaphylaxotoxins
• Attract leukocytes, Includes C5aChemotaxins
• Increase phagocytosis activity, Includes C4b, C3b, and iC3bOpsonins
• 40% of the complement proteins are involved in the _____ cascadeACTIVATION
• What are the three pathways of complement system activationClassical, Alternative & Lectin
• In all three activation pathways, ___ is the most important complement protein, It is the most abundant & the most potentC3
• The only pathway which requires the formation of an immune complexClassical Activation Pathway
3 activating units and their order (in classical activation pathway)1. Recognition Unit 2. Activation Unit 3. Membrane Attack Complex
Complexes 1-9... what activating units are they associated with?1, Recognition; 2-4 Activation Unit; 5-9 MAC
This complex Attacks cell membranes of pathogens or body tissuesMembrane Attack Complex
This pathway Does not use C1, C2, or C4 like the classical pathway does... Instead, Factor B acts like C2 and Factor D like C4Alternative Activation Pathway
This pathway utilizes Mannose Binding Lectin, specifically, in order to bind to bacterial mannose. Upon MBL binding to mannose, three serine proteases are activated- MASP-1, 2, and 3Lectin Pathway
three serine proteases, MASP-1, 2, and 3, are associated with what activation pathway?Lectin Activation Pathway
Factor I inhibits what pathway?Classical
Factor H inhibits what pathway?Alternative (acts on factor B)
S Protein inhibits what pathway?Lectin Pathway
CR1 receptor has what effect on what pathway?Inhibitory, Alternative
DAF receptor has what effect on what pathways?Inhibitory; Classical & Alternative
This disease is caused by pathological up regulation of the compliment system (b/c of a lack of DAF receptors)Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
Gram ____ bacteria are not affected by MAC'sGram Positive
___ cells are more difficult to lyseNucleated
This lab is used to test the classical pathwayCH50 Test (how long does it take to lyse 50% of red blood cells in a culture)