trocket52's version from 2015-10-04 18:37

Section 1

Question Answer
VirusesVery unusual group. They are extremely small. Smaller than all other organisms (including bacteria)
StructureVery simple. Consist only of a protein coat (called the capsid) & nucleic acid (can be DNA or RNA) known as the genome. Some (e.g.: herpes) also have an outer membrane called the envelope
What aren't viruses? Not cells. NO cell wall, no cell membrane, no nucleus, no organelles and are NEITHER prokaryotes nor eukaryotes
Obligate intracellular parasitesSince viruses lack the structures & enzymes needed to make metabolic energy, make protein, and carry out most other cellular functions, all viruses must live inside of some sort of host cell.
BacteriophageViruses that infect bacteria. They have a polyhedral head w/ a tubular/helical tail w/ fibers at the bottom used for attachment

Section 2

Question Answer
Replication of VirusesVery different from all other living things. Other things have cell division, viruses do not
Synthesis & Assembly of SubunitsThe way that viruses reproduce. Many copies of all the parts of the virus (nucleic acid, protein coat) are made inside the host cell. These parts are then put together to make many viruses.
Attachment (viral replication)A stage in viral replication that is host & tissue specific
Penetration (viral replication)A stage in viral replication when the virus enters the host cell by endocytosis or fusion of the envelope
Uncoating (viral replication)A stage in viral replication when the genome is released from inside the capsid
Synthesis (viral replication) A stage in viral replication when the host cell makes viral proteins & nucleic acids
Maturation/Assembly (viral replication)A stage in viral replication that puts viral subunits together
Release (viral replication)A stage in viral replication of when the virus exits the host cell
LatencyWhen some viruses do not complete replicating but exist as DNA inserted into the host's DNA. The virus may reactive & continue replicating at a later time.
Examples of LatencyHerpes, HIV, and chickenpox / shingles

Section 3

Question Answer
Viroids (atypical virus)An odd organism made up only of small pieces of RNA with no protein
Prions (atypical virus)Made only of protein with no DNA or RNA
Example of what Prions causeDestruction of brain. Best known disease is BSE (aka, Mad Cow Disease)

Section 4

Question Answer
Viral DiseasesViruses can infect anywhere in the body.
Influenza VirusIn the respiratory tract and cause the common cold. A feature of this virus is that it changes its surface proteins often & so avoids the immune response and can infect you repeatedly.
Skin VirusesCan cause measles, rubella, and a variety of diseases associated with herpes simplex virus.
Varicella Also known as chickenpox, establishes a latent infection in the nerve ganglia & can recur later in life as shingles.
Human Papilloma VirusesAlso know as HPV, cause warts and trigger hyperplasia (excessive growth) of skin cells
Hepatitis In the digestive tract they cause the liver infection. Occurs in different forms caused by different viruses (Hepatitis A,B,C...), mumps, and gastroenteritis.
RabiesDisease in the nervous system which is transmitted by mammals such as raccoons and bats. Polio and encephalitis also are serious diseases in the nervous system
MononucleosisInfect B cells
Yellow FeverA viral fever
RetrovirusUse the enzyme reverse transcriptase to convert their RNA genome into DNA after entering the hose (ex. would be HIV)