Microbial Diseases of the Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract

gotcelloskills's version from 2015-04-30 05:16


Influenza, Pertussis, RSV Disease

Lower Respiratory Diseases

NameCausative agentTransmissionVirulence FactorsCulture/diagnosisPreventionTreatment
InfluenzaInfluenza A, B, and C virusesdroplet, direct, and indirectGlycoprotein spikes, overall ability to change geneticallyViral culture (3–10 days) or Rapid antigen-based or PCR testskilled injected vaccine; inhaled, life attenuated sprayAmantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, or oseltamivir
PertussisBordetella pertussisdropletrunny nose, 1-2 weeks, paroxysm; potato glycerol agarpertussis toxinDTaP vaccine; antibioticssupportive measures; antbiotics
RSV DiseaseRespiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV)droplet and indirect via fomites; winter and early spring"giant cell" syncitia formationdirect antigen testingpassive antibody for high-risk childrenRibavirin in severe cases

Upper Respiratory Diseases

NameCausative agentTransmissionSigns and SymptomsPreventionTreatment
Pharyngitiscommon cold virusesdroplet, direct contact, opportunisticinflammation of throat, swollen tonsils, white packets at back of throatgood hand-washingpenicillin; cephalosporin
Rhinitisover 200 different virusesdroplet; indirect contactsneezing and runny nose; scratchy throat------
Sinusitisvarious viruses, bacteria, and fungithink sinus infection---broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungals
Acute Otitis MediaStreptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzaeinfection of middle earvaccinewait and watch
DiphtheriaCorynebacterium diphtheriaevehicle, droplet, fomitesthick, grey membrane covering throat and tonsilsdiphtheria toxoid vaccineantitoxin plus erythromycin or penicillin