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Microbial Diseases Affecting the GI Tract

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gotcelloskills's version from 2015-04-30 04:35

Summary

This page helps you learn the microbial diseases of the GI tract.

Acute Diarrhea

Causative AgentTransmissionVirulence FactorsSymptomsPreventionTreatmentFever?Blood in stool?Distinctive Features
Salmonellavehicle (food and beverage); fecal-oralAdhesions, endotoxinvomiting, diarrhea, mucosal irritationfood and personal hygienerehydration; no antibiotic for uncomplicated diseaseUsuallySometimesoften associated with chickens and reptiles
Shigellafecal-oral; direct contactendo and enterotoxins; shiga toxinsFrequent, watery stools, Fever, Intense abdominal pain, Nausea and vomiting are commonfood and personal hygieneTMP-SMZ, rehydrationOftenOftenVery low ID50
Shiga-Producing E. coli O157:H7vehicle (food and beverage); fecal-oralshiga toxins, adhesionMild gastroenteritis, Fever, Bloody diarrheacook meat and clean veggiessupportive measures (NO ANTIBIOTICS)OftenUsuallyHemolytic uremia syndrome
Other E. colivehicle; fecal-oralexotoxinsMild gastroenteritis, Fever, Bloody diarrheafood and personal hygienerehydration, antimotility agentSometimesSometimesEIEC, ETEC, EPEC
Campylobactervehicle (food and water); fecal-oralexotoxin, autoimmune responseFrequent, watery stools, Fever, Vomiting, Headaches, Severe abdominal painFood and personal hygienerehydration; erythromycin in severe casesUsuallyNoGuillain-Barre Syndrome
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Acute Diarrhea continued...

Causative AgentTransmissionVirulence FactorsSymptomsPreventionTreatmentFever?Blood in stool?Distinctive Features
Yersiniavehicle; fecal-oral; indirect contactintracellular growthsymptoms associated with appendicitisFood and personal hygieneNone in most cases; doxycycline, gentamicin, or TMP-SMZ for bacteremiaUsuallyOccasionallysevere abdominal cramps
Clostridium difficilenormal biota (superinfection)Enterotoxins A and B abdominal cramps, fever, pseudomembranesnonewithdrawal of antibiotic; in severe cases metronidazole or new drug fidaxomicin (Dificid)SometimesNot usually (mucus prominent)Antibiotic associated diarrhea
Vibrio choleraevehicle; fecal-oralcholera toxinabrupt vomiting, secretory diarrhea, "rice water stool", insane fluid losswater hygienerehydration; in severe cases tetracycline and TMP-SMZNoNo"rice water stools"
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Nonbacterial Causes of Acute Diarrhea

Causative AgentTransmissionVirulence FactorsSymptomsPreventionTreatmentFever?Blood in stool?Distinctive Features
Cryptosporidium (protozoa)vehicle; fecal-oralintracellular growthdiarrheawater treatment; proper food handlingNone; paromomycin used sometimesOftenNot usuallyresistant to chlorine disinfectant--
Rotavirusfecal-oral, fomite, vehiclenonediarrheaoral live vaccineRehydrationOftenNosevere in babies
Other virusesfecal-oral, vehicleNonediarrheahygienerehydrationSometimesNo---
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Food Poisoning

Causative AgentTransmissionVirulence FactorsSymptomsPreventionTreatmentFever?Blood in stool?Distinctive Features
Staphylococcus aureusvehicleheat-stable exotoxinviolent vomiting and diarrheaproper food handlingsupportiveNot usuallyNosuspect in food with high salt or sugar content
Bacillus cereusvehicleheat-stable toxin, heat-labile toxinviolent vomiting and diarrheaproper food handlingsupportiveNot usuallyNotwo forms: emetic and diarrheal
Clostridium perfringensvehicleheat-labile toxinviolent vomiting and diarrheaproper food handlingsupportiveNot usuallyNosevere abdominal pain
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Other tummy conditions

Question Answer
ConditionCausative agents
Chronic DiarrheaE. coli, Cyclospora, Giardia, Entamoeba
MumpsParamyxovirus
gastritis and gastric ulcersH. pylori
HepatitisHepatitis A, B, C, or E
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