olola's version from 2016-03-08 04:17


Question Answer
stormy clot reactionclostridia perfringens- cloudy reaction means positive
naglers reactionclostridia perfringens - no growth around anti-alpha toxin
myonecrosisaka gas gangrene- caused by clostridia perfringens
drumstick appearanceclostridia tetani
risus sardonicus, trismus, opisthotonos, respiratory muscle spasmtetanus caused by Clostridia Tetani
C. difficile is found in ___% of adults and almost all healthy infants3-6
which type of Clostridia perfringens is a human pathogen?type A
lethal dose of Clostridia botulinum is1-2 ug/kg
deadliest toxin on earthbotulinum
botulinum toxins _____ cleave SNAREs such as SNAP-25A, B, E
snapping fissionCornyebacterium
Elek plateimmunodiffusion test used to determine whether the organism is able to produce the diphtheria toxin; testing for Cornyebacteria diphtheria; precipitin lines indicate positive result
Cryptosporidium infects ____ small intestine
C. matrucottithe only true Coryneform organism in the oral cavity, usually contributes to plaque and biofilms
Propionibacteriaobligate anaerobes, Gram positive rods, P. acnes, P. propionica
category A bioterrorism agentFrancisella tularensis- ability to infect with as few as 10-50 CFU
most virulent form of infection by Francisella tularensisulceroglandular (75-85% of cases)
major clinical symptoms of tularemiafever and inflammation of lymph nodes
EB & RBChlamydia trachomatis, infective elementary body, reproductive reticulate body
no-long lasting immunity after infection, chance for reinfectionchlamydia trachomatis
trachoma is a chronic keratoconjunctivitis caused by serovars ____ of Chlamydia trachomatisA, B, Ba, C
serovars ____ of Chlamydia trachomatis causes urogenital infectionsD to K
Giemsa staindetect Chlamydia, specimen must be obtained from the involved site, pus or exudate is inadequate
Iodine staindetect Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion bodies (reticulate bodies)
best test for ChlamydiaNAAT- most sensitive, accurate, quick
treatment for LGVdoxycycline
treatment for ocular and genital infections of Chlamydia trachomatisazithromycin or doxycycline
treatment for newborn conjunctivitis and pneumonia of Chlamydia trachomatiserythromycin
what causes 10% of uncommon pneumonia?Chlamydophilia pneumonia
_____ causes parrot feverChlamydophilia psittaci
look for enlarged organs (hepatomegaly, splenomegaly) in _____Chlamydophilia psittaci
3 major groups of dermatophytes that cause Superficial MycosesTrichophyton species (infect skin, hair, nails), Microsporum species (infect skin, hair, NOT NAILS), Epidermophyton floccosum (NOT hair)
up to ______% of the general population may have Tinea versicolor at any one time, treatment is _______25, ketoconazole
opportunistic mycosescandidiasis, cryptococcis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis
primary pathogens causing Systemic Mycoseshistoplasmosis, NA blastomycosis
Candida stain poorly with _____, well stained with _____H&E; PAS, GMS, Gridley
With the exception of______, all Candida produce pseudo and true hyphae C.glabrata
fungal dimorphism, switch between 4 formsbudding yeast, pseudohypha, germ tube, hypha
what are diseases that resemble candidiasisgeotrichosis - use culture to differentiate
what is used for diagnosis of CryptococcusIndia ink stain for visualization of capsule, Mucicarmin or Gram stain, culture
pigeonsCryptococcus neoformans
Treatment for Cryptococcis by C. neoformansunaffected CNS can be treated with Fluconazole alone, Cryptococcal meningitis should be treated for 2 weeks with intravenous Amphotericin B and oral Flucytosine
Leading cause of death in acute leukemia and hematopoetic stem cell transplantationAspergillosis
Aspergillosis that may develop as an allergic responseAspergillus fumigatus
macronodules and halos in lungs on CT scanPulmonary Aspergillosis, also look for hyphae
In hematologic patients with invasive aspergillosis, the ________ can make the diagnosis in a noninvasive way Galactomannan immunoassay
wide hyphae lack septaMucormycosis
Sporangiophores are upright (simple or ramified) hyphae that support sac-like sporangia filled with asexual sporangiosporesMucormycosis
maxilla can be affectedMucormycosis- involves the sinuses, brain, lungs as sites of infections
Diagnosis of ______ established with biopsy and stain ; treatment is _____Mucormycosis; Amphotericin B, Posaconazole, Surgical removal
one-sided headache symptomMucormycosis- fungal disease often characterized by hyphae growing in and around blood vessels.
"cave disease"Histoplasmosis- systemic mycoses, primary pathogen
____% of people who are infected with Histoplasma capsulatum experience no symptoms or have symptoms that clear up spontaneously. These people then have partial immunity to reinfection95%
risk factor for Histoplasmosisexposure to bird or bat droppings
Black Death caused byYersinia pestis in rats
5 identified Ebola virus species, ____ which cause disease in humans4- EBOV, SUDV, TAFV, BDBV; (Reston virus affects nonhuman primates)
Prototype Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Pathogen for EbolaFilovirus- enveloped, non-segmented, negative stranded RNA virus
Hypovolemic shock, Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), Coagulopathy, Hemorrhage, Multi-organ failure symptoms are associated withEbolavirus
Lab findings associated with EbolaThrombocytopenia, Leukopenia followed by neutrophilia, Transaminase elevation (AST > ALT), Electrolyte abnormalities, PT and PTT prolonged, Proteinuria, increased creatinine
Acute onset of Ebola occurs ____ after exposure8-10 days
IgM is elevated for ____, IgG is elevated for after exposure to Ebola3-6 months, 3-5 years
Zika virus is of familyFlaviviridae, Genus Flavivirus
Zika virus structureEnveloped and icosahedral, nonsegmented, single stranded, positive sense RNA genome
bullet shapedRabies virus
rabies virus genome encodes 5 proteinsN, P, M, G, L ("No Puppy Must Get Loose")
most frequently used diagnostic test for rabiesdirect fluorescent antibody (DFA) test, but usually all tests must be conducted to confirm (DFA, RT-PCR, skin biopsy)
negri bodiesRabies virus
Counting the first day of vaccine treatment as day 0, injections are administered on days ____ for rabies0, 3, 7, 14, 28
reservoir of West Nile Virusbirds (+mosquito)
undulant feverBrucellosis- from infected milk
Brucellis that can transfect humansCattle- B. abortus, Goats/Sheep- B. melitensis
Yersinia Antigenic structure & Virulence factorsF1 antigen, VW antigen, Yop, MT, Endotoxin
Bacillus that can transfect humansB.anthracis- anthrax, B. cereus- food poisoning
rod with square ends in long chains (bamboo)B. anthracis
poly-D-glutamate capsuleB. anthracis
irregular margins, non-hemolyticB. anthracis
Lemmiere's diseaseFusobacterium
sulfur granulesActinomyces