aarista's version from 2016-06-03 20:13

bug hints (if all else fails)

Question Answer
asplenic patient (eg. splenectomy, chronic sickle cell dz)encapsulated microbes, esp. SHIN Strep pneumo, H flu type B, N meningitis)
branching rods in oral infxn, sulfur granulesActinomyces israelii
chronic granulomatous dzcatalase + organisms, esp. S aureus
"current jelly" sputumKlebsiella
dog or cat bitePasteurella multocida
facial nerve palsyBorrelia burgdorferi (Lyme dz)
fungal infxn in DM or immunocompromised ptMucor or Rhizopus species
health care providerHBV (from needle stick)
neutropenic ptsCandida albicans (systemic), Aspergillus
organ transplant recipientCMV
PAS +Tropheryma whipplei (Whipple dz)
pediatric infxnHaemophilus influenzae (inc. epiglottitis)
pneumonia in CF, burn infxnPseudomonas aeruginosa
pus, empyema, abscessStaph aureus
rash on hands and feetCoxsackie A virus, Treponema pallidum, Rickettsia rickettsii
sepsis/meningitis in newbornGroup B strep
surgical woundStaph aureus
traumatic open woundClostridium perfringens

bug groups

Question Answer
encapsulated bacteriaPlease SHiNE my SKiS...Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Strep pneumo, Haemophilus Influenzae type B, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, group B Strep
urease-positive organismsPee CHUNKSS...Proteus, Cryptococcus, H pylori, Ureaplasma, Nocardia, Klebsiella, S epidermidis, S saprophyticus. Urease hydrolyzes urea to release ammonia and CO2 and increase pH
catalase-positive organismsCats Need PLACESS to Belch their Hairballs...Catalase +: Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Listeria, ASpergillus, Candida, E coli, Staphylococci, Serratia, B cepacia, H pylori
infxn mom > fetusToRCHeS Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, CMV, HIV, HSV-2, Syphilis
obligate aerobesNagging Pests Must Breath...Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium tb, Bacillus
obligate anaerobesCan't Breathe Air...Clostridium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces
gram-indeterminate organismsSome Errant Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color...Spriochetes, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma, Listeria, Chlamydia


Question Answer
rash on palms and solesCoxsackievirus A infection (hand, foot and mouth dz), Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Secondary Syphilis
blueberry muffin rashcongenital rubella or CMV

rashes of childhood

Question Answer
oval-shaped vesicles on palms and soles, vesicles and ulcers in oral mucosacoxsackie type A (associated dz: hand-foot-mouth)
asymptomatic rose-colored macules appear on body after several days of high fever; can present w febrile seizures; usually affects infantshuman herpesvirus 6 (associated dz: roseola/exanthem subitum)
beginning at head and moving down, rash is preceded by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, blue-white spots on buccal mucosa (koplik spots)measles virus (associated dz: measles/rubeola)
"slapped cheek" rash on face, can cause hydrops fetals in pregnant womenparvovirus B19 (associated dz: erythema infectiosum/fifth dz)
pink coalescing macules begin at head and move down, fine desquamating truncal rash, postauricular LADrubella virus (ass dz: rubella/german measles)
erythematous, sandpaper-like rash w/ fever and sore throatstrep pyogenes (ass dz: scarlet fever)
vesicular rash begins on trunk, spreads to face and extremities w/ lesions in diff. stagesvaricella zoster virus (VZV, ass. dz: chickenpox)


Question Answer
opportunistic infxns, Kaposi sarcoma, lymphomaHIV > AIDS
painful genital ulcer w/ exudate, inguinal LADHaemophilus ducreyi > chancroid
urethritis, cervicitis, epididymitis, conjunctivitis, reactive arthritis, PIDChlamydia trachomatis (D-K) > chlamydia
genital warts, koilocytesHPV-6 and HPV-11 > condylomata acuminata
painful penile, vulvar or cervical vesicles and ulcers, can cause systemic sx such as fever, HA, myalgiaHSV-2 (less commonly HSV-1) > genital herpes
urethritis, cervicitis, PID, prostatitis, epididymitis, arthritis, creamy purulent dischargeNeisseria gonorrhoeae > gonorrhea
jaundiceHBV > Hep B
infxn of lymphatics, painless genital ulcers, painless LAD (ie, buboes)Chlamydia trachomatis (L1-L3) > lymphogranuloma venereum
painless chancreTreponema pallidum > primary syphilis
fever, LAD, skin rashes, condylomata lataTreponema pallidum > secondary syphilis
gummas, tabes dorsalis, general paresis, aortitis, Argyll Robertson pupilTreponema pallidum > tertiary syphilis
vaginitis, strawberry cervix, motile in wet prepTrichomonas vaginalis

nosocomial infections (risk factor/pathogen)

Question Answer
antibiotic useClostridium diff
aspiration (due to old age, altered mental status)polymicrobial, gram - bacteria, often anaerobes
decubitus ulcers, surgical wounds/drainsStaph aureus (including MRSA), gram - anaerobes (Bacteriodes, Prevotella, Fusobacterium)
intravenous cathetersStaph aureus (including MRSA), Staph epi (long term), Enterobacter
mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubationlate onset - P aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Staph aureus
renal dialysis unit, needlestickHBV
urinary catheterizationE coli, Klebsiella, Proteus species
water aerosolsLegionella

nosocomial infections (signs_sx/pathogen)

Question Answer
watery diarrhea, leukocytosisC diff
right lower lobe infiltrate or right upper/middle lobe (patient recumbent); purulent, malodorous sputumpolymicrobial, gram - bacteria, often anaerobes
erythema, tenderness, induration, drainage from surgical wound sitesStaph aureus (including MRSA), gram - anaerobes (Bacteriodes, Prevotella, Fusobacterium)
erythema, induration, tenderness, drainage from access sites (catheters)Staph aureus (including MRSA), Staph epi (long term), Enterobacter
new infiltrate on CXR, increased sputum prodxn, sweet odor (Pseudomonas) in vent/intub ptlate onset - P aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Staph aureus
dysuria, leukocytosis, flank pain or CVA tenderness in pt w/ urinary cathE coli, Klebsiella, Proteus species
signs of pneumonia, GI sx (N/V), neurologica abnormalitiesLegionella

parasite hints

Question Answer
biliary tract dz, cholangiocarcinomaClonorchis sinensis
brains cysts, seizuresTaenia solium (neurocysticercosis)
hematuria, squamous cell bladder cancerSchistosoma haematobium
liver (hyatid) cystsEchinococus granulosus
microcytic anemiaAncylostoma, Necator
myalgias, periorbital edemaTrichinella spiralis
perianal pruritusenterobius
portal HTNSchistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum
vit B12 deficiencyDiphyllobothrium latum

nematode (roundworm) routes of infxn

Question Answer
ingestedEnterobius, Ascaris, Toxocara,'ll get sick if you EATT these
cutaneousStrongyloides, Ancylostoma, Necator...these get into your feet from the SANd
bitesLoa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti...lay LOW to avoid getting bitten


Question Answer
naked/non-enveloped virusesgive PAPP smears and CPR to a NAKED HIPpie (hepevirus) DNA = PAPP and RNA = CPR. PAPP = Papillomavirus, Adenovirus, Parvovirus, Polyomavirus, CPR = Calicivirus, Picornavirus, Reovirus and He(r)pevirus
DNA virusesHHAPPPPy viruses. Hepadna, Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papilloma, Polyoma

receptors used by viruses

Question Answer
CMVintegrins (heparan sulfate)
HIVCD4, CCR5 (co-receptor, used in early stages), CXCR4 (late stages)
Rabiesnicotinic AChR

viral vaccines

Question Answer
live attenuatedsmallpox, yellow fever, rotavirus, chickenpox (VZV), Sabin polio virus, MMR, Influenza (intranasal) "Live! One night only! See SMALL YELOW ROTAting CHICKENs get vaccinated with Sabin and MMR! IT's INcredible"
killedRabies, Influenza (injected), Salk Polio, HAV vaccines. "SalK = Killed. RIP Always" Note: Killed/induced vaccines induce only humoral immunity but are stable.
subunitHBV (antigen = HBsAg) and HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18)