Micro Test2b

robbypowell's version from 2015-09-30 04:54


Question Answer
All Eukarya lack ____ except for yeast.cell walls
___ have a true Nucleus (surrounded by membrane)Eukaryotes
___ have Endoplasmic reticulumeukaryotes
___ have mitochondriaeukaryotes
___ have 80S ribosomeseukaryotes
___ have DS DNA in linear chromosomeseukaryotes
___ have no nuclear envelopeProkaryotes
___ are Unicellular, free-living organisms; smaller in size than eukaryotic cellsProkaryotes
___ reproduce exclusively asexuallyProkaryotes
Whole classes of antibiotics are available to inhibit bacterial ribosomes and not host ones... why?Because Bacterial and Eukaryotic Ribosomes are different (although they are both mode of 2 components 50s & 30S)
The bacterial plasma membrane is a lipid-bilayer composed of _________% lipid, _________% protein, and a small amount of carbohydrate35% lipid, 65% protein
In gram ___ bacteria an osmotic gradient of 300 to 400-fold may exist across surface layersPositive
Energy producing cytochromes and enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation are found where in bacteria?In Plasma Membrane (membrane-bound)
membrane-associated cytoplasmic sack formations are called ____ and may be seen in Gram Positive bacteriaMesosomes
Mesosomes are frequently associated with _________ _________ and _________ _________ formationCell Division; Wall Septum
In what form is bacterial genome found within the cell?a single dsDNA circle (no chromosomal structure) (no envelope)
Small circular forms of DNA which contain just a few genes (antibiotic resistance factors) separate from the bacterial genome are called ___Plasmids
A ___ ___ surrounds the plasma membranes of all pathogenic bacteria EXCEPT MycoplasmaCell Wall
What feature of bacteria protect the cell from rupturing in low osmotic pressure environments?Cell Wall
What is the backbone of the bacterial cell wall?Peptidoglycan
What are the 2 amino sugar components of Peptidoglycan?Glucosamine & Muramic acid (NAG & NAM)
What is the specific formation of Glucosamine in peptidoglycan?β 1,4-linked N-acetyl-D glucosamine
What is the specific formation of Muramic acid in peptidoglycan?N-acetyl-D Muramic acid
Glucosamine has sugars linked via ___ _________ _________ linkageBeta 1-4 linkage
In order to give a cell wall three-dimensional shape and structural integrity, the peptidoglycan linear polymers must be ___ _________Cross-linked
Gram ___ bacteria usually have direct linkage between polymersGram Neg bacteria (such as E. coli)
Gram ____bacteria such as Streptococci usually cross-link with the introduction of peptide bridges (penta-glycine peptide)Gram Pos (such as Streptococci)
Peptide bridge cross linking is associated with what type of bacteria?Gram Positive
Gram ___ bacteria have an outer membraneGram Neg
Gram ___ bacteria have a thinner cell wallGram Neg
Gram ___ bacteria have a thicker cell wallGram Pos
Gram ___ bacteria have endotoxin in their membraneGram Neg
A bacteria with Techoic acid must be Gram ___Gram Pos
A bacteria with Sporulation must be Gram ___Gram Pos
A bacteria that is resistant to Lysozyme is Gram ___Gram Neg
A bacteria that is sensitive to Lysozyme is Gram ___Gram Pos
Gram ___ are more resistant to penicillinGram Neg
Gram ___ are more susceptible to penicillinGram Pos
The gram (–) cell wall exhibits three distinct layers, what are they?1. outer membrane 2. thin peptidoglycan (minimal cross-linkage) 3. Periplasmic space (before cytoplasmic membrane)
The periplasmic gel includes ___ and ___ ___ ___proteins; membrane-derived oligosaccharides (MDOs)
What are the Three parts of LPS, giving it its Amphipathic nature?Lipid A, Core Oligosaccharide, O-specific sugar
highly conserved outer lipid leaflet which is virtually identical in all gram negative bacteriaLipid A
middle component of LPS, shows some variability among genus and species. Contains KDO (2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid an unusual substance)Core Oligosaccharide
most terminal component of LPS, which is highly variable from one genus and species to anotherO-specific polysaccharide
On what part of Gram Neg bacteria are species specific antigens found?O-specific Polysaccharide (on LPS)
Protoplasts lack ____Peptidoglycan
___ have partially degraded peptidoglycanspheroplasts
mutants that genetically lack peptidoglycanL-forms
The filament of a bacterial flagellum is _________ to _________ nanometers in diameter15-20 nanometers
hollow “hair-like” microfibril accessory structures primarily composed of protein.Fimbriae or Pilli
Accessory structure that allows the transfer of DNA from a donor bacterial cell to a recipient cell.Sex Pili (fimbriae)
Accessory structure important for the attachment of bacteria to specific human substratesSex Pili or Fimbriae
extracellular polymers which tend to be easily washed off the bacterial cellslime layer
Gels on outside of cell walls that can act as anti-phagocyticCapsule
A small number of Gram (+) bacteria escape adverse living conditions by differentiating into dormant, highly resistant cells called ___Endospores
dehydrated, multilayer structure containing complete copy of chromosome, ribosomes, some essential proteins, high Ca2+ bound to dipicolinic acidEndospore
___ play a major role in the epidemiology of diseases such as AnthraxSpores
unique substance found in the core of an endosporeDIPLI-COLINIC acid
Vegetative bacteria contains _________% water while endospores contains _________% water77.5%; 15%
From dormant spore to a growing vegetative bacterium takes about _________ hours6 hours
Three stages of spore transformationActivation, Initiation & Outgrowth
Occurs when heat or one of several chemicals activate a receptor on the surface of the spore coatActivation
Occurs when the “activated spore” is exposed to L-alanine, certain other amino acids, or glucoseInitiation
This stage returns the spore to vegetative form and requires de novo protein synthesisOutgrowth
Using trypan blue, a viable cell will have a ___ cytoplasmClear
Using trypan blue, a nonviable cell will have a ___ cytoplasmBlue
What is the optimum temperature for Psychrophiles?15 C
What is the optimum temp for Mesophiles?37 C
What is the optimum temp for Thermophiles?78 C
Of SOD, Catalase & Peroxidase... only Aerotolerant Anaerobes have ___Peroxidase
Of SOD, Catalase & Peroxidase... Obligate Aerobes & Facultative Anaerobes have ___ and ___SOD & Catalase
Bacteria that has SOD & PeroxidaseAerotolerant Anarerobe
Bacteria that has SOD & CatalaseObligate Aeroble or Fac Anaerobe
Bacteria that has no SOD, Catalase or PeroxidaseObligate Anaerobe
Two organisms associated with juvenile periodontitis are capnophilicActinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Capnocytophaga (genus)
Capnophiles require greater what?CO2

Flagellae classification

Question Answer
single, unipolar flagellumMono-trichous
multiple, unipolar flagellaeLopho-trichous
bipolar, single or multiple flagellaAmphi-trichous
flagellae over the whole surfacePeri-trichous

gram staining steps

Question Answer
Step 1 of Gram stainingCrystal Violet
Step 2 of Gram stainingGram's Iodine
Step 3 of Gram stainingDecolorized (acetone or alcohol)
Step 4 of Gram stainingSafranin Red

bacteria novel ways to pick up new genes:

Question Answer
uptake of exogenous DNATransformation
Genes are transferred from a donor to a recipientConjugation
New genes supplied by a bacteriophageTransduction


Question Answer
Study of specimens taken from patients suspected of having infectionsDiagnostic Microbiology
laser-based, biophysical technology utilized by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatusFlow Cytometry
Ziehl-Neelsen staining is useful for detecting ___ bacteria, mainly of the genus ____. The most common use for this stain is to detect (genus species) ___ ___ which causes ___Acid-fast; Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis
Germ Tube testing positive means you have what?Candida Albicans


Question Answer
who discovered the first antibiotic?Sir Alexander Fleming
What enzyme was discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming?Lysozyme (unclear from slide, probably not question)
What two scientists isolated the bacteria killing substance in the Sir Alexander Fleming's mold, Penicillin?Florey & Chain
First clinician to use Penicillin on a patient?Charles Fletcher
Minimum Concentration of an Antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growthMIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration)
Minimum Concentration of an Antibiotic that kills 99.9% of bacteriaMBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration)
terminology: Inhibits bacterial growthBacterio-STATIC
terminology: Kills bacteriaBactericidal
terminology: susceptibility to an antimicrobial agentSensitivity
terminology: relative ability of an organism to remain unaffected by an antimicrobial agentResistance
terminology: types of microbes against which an antimicrobial agent is effectiveSpectrum
terminology: more toxicitiy against microbe than the hostSelective Toxicity
in the US Every year ____ people are infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics2 million
In the US ___ people die every year as a result of infections from antibiotic resistant bacteria23,000 people
broad class of antibiotics, including penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems.B-Lactam Antiobiotics
What is the mechanism type of Penicillin type antibiotics?B-Lactam Antibiotics
What example class of antibiotics use an Aminoglycoside mechanism?Streptomycin
Gram ___ is best affected by inhibitng cell wall synthesisGram Positive (their cell wall is on outside, and so is susceptible)
Gram ___ is best affected by inhibiting Folate synthesisGram Positive
Gram ___ is best affected by inhibiting Protein SynthesisGram Negative
Gram ___ is best affected by inhibiting DNA or RNA synthesisGram Negative
2 examples of cell wall synthesis inhibitorsPenicillin & Cephalosporin (Beta Lactam antibiotics)
Drug Class to target Folate synthesis (Folic Acid)Sulfonamide
2 examples of Cell Membrane disruptorsNystatin & Azoles
2 examples of Antibiotics that interfere with Nucleic Acid synthesisMetronidazole & Fluroquinolones
Metronidazole & Fluroquinolones do what to act as antibiotics?Nucleic Acid synthesis inhibition
Nystatin & Azoles do what to act as antibiotics?Disrupt Cell Membranes
Sulfonamides do what to act as antibiotics?Inhibit Folic Acid synthesis
Penicillin & Cephalosporins do what to act as antibiotics?Inhibit Cell wall synthesis
3 examples of drugs that inhibit bacterial protein synthesisMacrolides, Clindamycin, Tetracycline
Macrolides, Clindamycin & Tetracycline do what to act as antibiotics?Inhibit Protein Synthesis
3 Penicillinase resistant PenicillinsMethicillin, Nafcillin, & Dicloxacillin
Is Amoxicillin Penicillinase resistant?No (meth, naf, and Diclox are, though)
What is Clavulonic acid (Augmenting)used for? overcoming penicillin resistance
How do Aminoglycosides inhibit protein synthesis?bind to 30S subunit and stop Initiation
How do Erythromycin & Clindamycin inhibit protein synthesis?bind to 50S and stop Translocation
What are 6 Adverse affects of Penicillin?Hypersensitivity (allergy?), Diarrhea, Nephritis, Neurotoxicity, Hematologic toxicities, & Cationic toxicities (HDNNHC)
How does Penicillin act on bacteria?inhibit Transpeptidase (which does cross-linking of Peptidoglycan) (eventually leads to lysis)
If a bacteria can release _____ then it is said to be Penicillin resistantBeta-Lactamase (Penicillinase)
T/F: If a patient is allergic to one type of penicillin then they are allergic to ALL types of PenicillinTrue (6-Aminopenicillianic Acid)

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