Micro test 2c

robbypowell's version from 2015-09-30 05:21

Leukocuytes & Immunoglobulins

Question Answer
Specific markers for all B-CellsCD19
CD19 (or CD20) are associated with what type of cells?all B-cells
CD (of CD19) stands for ___ ____Cluster Differentiation
Naive B cells undergo differentiation in 2 steps... first ___ chain and then ___ chainHeavy, then Light
Progenitor of Pro-B cells are ____ cellsHematopoietic cells
1st place that B-cells travel to from bone marrowSpleen (majority)
What causes the activation of Naive Mature B-cells?Antigen
CD 25 is a receptor for ___IL2
marker associated with only Mature B-cellsCD25
larger mature B-cells with greater production capacityPlasma cells
Ideal phase for B-cells, involved with secondary response, stay in the body after primary responseMemory cells
Is the antibody level during primary response or secondary response?Secondary (due to memory cells)
lifespan of naive B cells3-4 days
lifespan of memory cellsusually 4-6 months
how do B cells get activated directly?Antigen (T-cell independent activation)
How do B cells get activated indirectly?T-cells (T-cell dependent activation)
T-cell Independent activation is sufficient for the production of which Immunoglobulin?IgG
What types of molecules are epitopes for T-cell independent activation?usually simple carbs associated with repeating simple patterns (bacterial capsule)
Is T-cell independent activation the pathway of most immunogens?No (minority of immunogens for B-cells)
T-cell dependent immunogens must contain a ___protein (microbial surface is example of immunogen)
The vast majority of B-cell immunogens follow what pathway of B-cel activation?T-cell dependent
After activation, what does the B-cell do?Clonal expansion (to produce greater antibody response)
Where in the Lymph node are B-cells found?Primary follicle
Where in the Lymph node are T-cells found?Paracortical area
Major functional unit of immune systemLymph node
Military base that sends forces to combat field of immune systemSpleen
2 phases of B-cell activation1. Priming (sensitization) (aka COGNITIVE SIGNAL) 2. Proliferation & Differentiation
Cognitive signal to B-cells results in ___ B cellsPrimed**
Complement fragment ___ binds covalently to a microbe or to an Agn/Ab complexC3b
after binding to a microbe, C3b is further degraded to a fragment called ___ which remains bound to the microbial surfaceC3d
Mature B lymphocytes express a receptor for C3d, calledCR2/CD21
What is the co-receptor of B-cells?CR2/CD21
CR2/CD21 does what?When both the antigen receptor and CR2/CD21 are simultaneously engaged, B cell receptor signaling is greatly enhanced.
Type of receptors o that can cause T-cell independent activation of B-cellsToll-Like Receptors (TLR)
only producer of antibodies in our bodiesB-cells
What receptor on B cells binds to C3d?CR2/CD21
Activation of B-cells Increases lifespan as a result of anti-apoptotic protein production, most notably ___BCL-2
B-cell activation causes the cell to enter ___ phase of life cycleG1 (growth 1)
The expression of Ig surface receptors which tend to immobilize B cells in lymphoid follicles is reduced. ____ receptors decrease ___ receptors increaseCXCR5 decrease; CCR7 increase
B-cells present antigens to Helper T cells that have been digested and attached to the end of ___ moleculesMHC II
4 types of cells that can present to T-cellsDendritic (#1), Macrophages, Neutrophils, B-cells
What is the professional antigen presenting cell?Dendritic cells
CD4+ cells are also called what?Helper T-cells
TH1 release what cytokines? IFN-gamma, TNF-Alpha, IL-2
TH2 release what type of cytokines?IL-10 (anti-inflammatory), IL-4
what type of helper T-cells are more involved with differentiation of B-cells?TH2 (type 2)
IL4 production by TH2 induces what type of immunoglobulin differentiation from B-cells?
Which T-cells stimulate proliferative cytokines (not differentiative)TH1
Which T-cells stimulate differentiative cytokines (not proliferative)TH2
Helper T lymphocytes that recognize linear peptide antigens presented by B cell class II MHC molecules and engage B7 on B cells, begin expressing ___.CD40L
interaction of ___ is the initial signal from T-cells to the B cell to begin proliferation (clonal expansion).CD40/CD40L
Which cytokine induce differentiation to IgE producing B-cells?IL-4 (TH2)
Which cytokine induces the production of Opsonizing Cytokines such as IgG1 & IgG3?INF-gamma (TH1)
What is the signature cytokine of TH1 cells?INF-gamma
What is the signature cytokine of TH2 cells?IL-4
Isotype Switching refers to what?Change of B-cell type to a type that produces a different Immunoglobulin
Complement activation leads to what type of production from B-cells?IgM
IFN-gamma activation (by what type of T helper) leads to what type of production from B-cells?IgG (esp IgG1, IgG3) (by TH1)
What is the only type of Immunoglobulin that can cross the placenta?IgG
IL-4 activation (by what type of T helper) leads to what type of production from B-cells?IgE (TH2)
TGF-beta activation leads to what type of production from B-cells?IgA (mucosal)
Affinity maturation is only seen in response to what type of B-cell activation?T-cell dependent
the process by which the affinity of Igs produced in response to a protein antigen increases with prolonged or repeated exposure to the same epitope.Affinity maturation
Affinity Maturation requires the activity of the enzyme____ ____ ____Activation Induced Deaminase (AID).
Cells with Igs of increased affinity, with the interaction of a follicular helper T cells, are the ones that are selected to live and differentiate into ___ ___, this is largely responsible for Maturation AffinityPlasma Cells