Micro Test 2a

robbypowell's version from 2015-09-29 18:14


Question Answer
______ is a quantitative measure of pathogenicityVirulence
The two factors of Virulence are ____ Potential and ____Toxigenic Potential; Invasiveness
Virulence is measure with ___ or ___LD50 or ID50
Vertical spread of communicable disease is from a ___ to a ___Parent to their child
Disease spread throughout only a certain region is called an ___ENDEMIC
Disease spread to a region and its surrounding areas is called an ____EPIDEMIC
Disease with a non-specific route of transmission, spread world-wide is called a ____PANDEMIC
Stage of disease... Initial exposure of a pathogen before subclinical signsIncubation
Stage of disease... subclinical manifestation, pre-symptoms begin to showProdromal
Stage of disease... clinical signs, inflammationAcute Specific Illness
the route that a pathogen is spread by is called its ____Transmission
4 determinants of bacterial pathogenicity(mode of) Transmission, Host Biofilm interactions, Invasiveness, Toxigenicity
____ relates to how a pathogen penetrates a cell, and whether it can live as a free particleInvasiveness
The enzyme ___ breaks down collagen and cells/tissue integrityCollagenase
The enzyme ___ clots bloodCoagulase
The enzyme ___ breaks down connective and ground tissueHyaluronidase
The enzyme ___ breaks down IgAIgA Protease
The enzyme ___ kills WBC'sLeukocidins
3 factors that determine the Invasiveness of a pathogenEnzymes, Capsule, Cell Wall Proteins
Definition: The ability of a pathogenic organism to produce injurious substances that damage the host.Toxigenicity
Definition: The degree to which an organism is able to spread through the body from a focus of infection.Invasiveness
What is an example of a disease that uses Enterotoxins?E. Coli
What are 3 examples of diseases that use Neurotoxins?Tetanus, Diphtheria, Botulinum
What are the 3 examples listed in the book table for "Typical Diseases" that release Exotoxin?Cholera, Tetanus, Diphtheria
What are the 2 examples listen in the book table for "Typical Diseases" associated with Endotoxins?Sepsis (by Gram-negative Rods), Endotoxic shock
____ are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteriaEndotoxins
____ are toxins secreted by bacteria.Exotoxins
____ bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external worldExogenous
____ bacteria are that go on to cause a disease but are also part of the normal floraEndogenous
3 I's of modes of transmissionInhalation, Ingestion, Inoculation
____ Inflammation: intracellular bacterial infections. Resists degradation inside phagocytic cell, so other WBCs surround itGranulomatous
Compared to the Bacterial disease, the pathogenesis from viral disease is ____ (faster/slower) and ____ (less/more) destructiveFaster, More destructive
The spread mechanism of Localized viral infections is most commonlyDirect Viral Shedding into the Exterior or Lumen
condition where viruses enter the bloodstream and hence have access to the rest of the bodyViremia
____ spread of nervous system viral infections spreads from peripheral to central nervous systemCentripetal
____ spread of nervous system viral infections spreads from central to peripheral nervous systemCentrifugal
4 routes of transmission in the PNSAxons, Schwann cells (endoneural), connective tissue space between nerves, perineural lymphatics
structural changes in the host cells that are caused by viral invasionCytopathic Effect
The adherence of a substance (or of another cell) to the surface of a red blood cellHemadsorption
Cytopathic effect on cells can cause them to merge their membranes together to form ___ or multi-nucleated giant cellsSynctia
3 Host Cell determinants of susceptibility to viral infectionImmune status, Genetic constitution, Age
Fungi do not possess the virulent attributes of bacteria EXCEPT _____ which has a dangerous spread from spoiled nutsAflatoxin
____ infections generally cause slowly progressing chronic infectionsFungal Infections
Immunocompromised are the only people that are usually affected by ____ infectionsFungal Infections
An example of an oral fungal pathogenCandida
4 components of Candida VirulenceAdherence/Biofilm formation, Switch/shift spore to Hyphae, Hyphae formation, Extracellular enzymes
What 3 extracellular enzymes are associated with Candida?Phospholipase, Proteinase, & Hemolysin
Are there vaccines available for exotoxins?yes
Are there vaccines available for endotoxins?no

evolution and taxonomy

Question Answer
T/F: Microorganisms are visible to the naked eye.False
Microorganisms are smaller than _________ mm<1mm
T/F: Microorganisms can be cellular OR non-cellularTrue (non-cellular example, viruses)
What are the 5 types included under the umbrella of "microorganisms"? "Algae, Protozoa, Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses
How long have bacteria been around?3-4 billion years
In 1677, ___ _____ (the father of microbiology) was the first to observe microscopic organisms with primitive lensVan Leeuwenhoek
Koch's postulates were made in what year?1876
Three basic categories of living systemsplants, animals, microorganisms
Definition: the evolution of a genetically related group of organisms as distinguished from the development of the individual organismsPhylogeny
Definition (taxonomic) arrangement into taxonomic groups (taxa)Classification
Definition (taxonomic) assignment of names (following established rules)Nomenclature
Definition (taxonomic) assignment of isolates to taxa (established or new)Identification
Definition: use of antibodies to detect specific antigens associated with the microbeSerotyping
Definition: Classification based on the presence or absence of specific biochemical markers, proteases, nucleases, etc.Biotyping
Classification by Morphology, Serotyping or Biotyping is known as ____ ClassificationPhenotypic
What 6 features do Eukaryotes have that Prokaryotes do not?Membrane-bound nucleus, Multiple chromosomes, Membrane-bound organelles, Chloroplasts or mitochondria, Sexual reproduction, Golgi apparatus
4 "kingdoms" of eukaryotesProtists, Fungi, Plants, Metozoans (multicellular animals)
___ methods are generally labor intensive and expensive; primarily used in reference labsAnalytic Methods (Cell Wall FA, Whole Cell Lipid analysis, Whole Cell protein analysis)
Tests assessing Cell Wall Fatty Acids, Whole Cell Lipids, and Whole Cell Proteins are examples of ______ Classification methodsAnalytic
____ classification or the ____ ____ approach has the advantage of giving relatedness between organisms as mathematically measurable (objective)Genotypic; Molecular Biological
What is the most precise type of classification?Genotypic (molecular biological)
The molecular biological approach analyzes what part of the microorganism for its classification and analysis?Genetic Material
Comparative sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes is called ____Ribotyping
This gene codes for the RNA present in the small subunit of the ribosomeRibosomal 16S
Currently, over ____ bacterial 16S sequences have been deposited in major public DNA databases125,000
This phylogenetic subdivision has a modified cell wall without muramic acidArchaebacteria
This phylogenetic subdivision has membrane lipids containing glyceryl ETHERS (rather than esters)Archaebacteria
This phylogenetic subdivision include those producing methane (converting CO2 and H2 to CH4 and H2O)Archaebacteria
This phylogenetic subdivision has halophiles & thermoacidophilesArchaebacteria
What are more closely related to Eukaryotes, Archaebacteria or EubacteriaArchaebacteria
___ are Prokaryotic, unicellular, reproduce by binary fission, size generally 1-2 μm.Bacteria (eubacteria)
What is the formula for methanogens' production of methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions? CO2 + 4H2 --> CH4 + 2H20
Extreme thermophiles live at temperatures > ___ deg Celsius>85 C
Extreme halophiles live at salt concentrations > ___ M, but prefer _________ to _________ M.>1.5M, but prefer 3-4.5M
DNA sequencing revealed that Mycoplasmas are actually degenerate ___ (i.e. gram-positive)Clostridium
Streptococcus Mutans is Gram ____Positive
Neisseria sicca is Gram ___Negative
Bacteria that stain pink are Gram ____Negative
Bacteria that stain purple are Gram ___Positive
What is the morphological type of Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)Spirochete
What is the morphological type of Bacteroides melanogenicus (cause septic arthritis)G- Rod
Original Definition: groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groupsSpecies
Because bacteria do not reproduce sexually, they show greater than ___ % nucleic acid homology> 80%
In the binomial nomenclature system... the first name is the ____ and the second name is the ___Genus; species
"King Philip Called Out For Green Slime" is a mnemonic for what?Taxonomic ranking (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species)
What are the Taxonomic rankings from largest to smallest?Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
International Journal. of Systematic Bacteriology is primarily for what?Publication of new Prokaryotic Taxa
Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology contains what?Correctly described Taxa (definitive)
How do Fungi reproduce?Sexually or Asexually (binary fission)
2 morphological groups of Fungi (micro-organisms)Yeasts, Molds (hyphae)
Many fungi of medical importance are ____, meaning they may exist in either yeast or mold formDimorphic
Currently, three major classes of fungi causing disease in humans(A,B,Z) Ascomycetes, Bastidiomycetes, Zygomycetes
Cryptococcus neoformans causes ______, one of the most common life-threatening fungal infections in people with AIDsCryptococcosis
Definition: infectious particle, non cellular, size range 20-300nmVirion
reproduction of a ___ requires the replicative machinery of a host metabolic organismVirion
Infectious particle that lack enzymes required for biosynthesis and metabolismVirion
T/F: Virions contain both DNA & RNAFalse, Virions can contain EITHER but NOT BOTH
What is the size range for Virions?20-300 nanometers
There are at lease ____ defined virus families61
Single-stranded infectious RNA, Plant pathogensVIROIDS
a DNA region within a gene that is not translated into proteinIntron

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