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Micro lecture final

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hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-05-16 04:44

Section 1

Question Answer
cellular respirationP: 38 ATP/glucose, E: 36 ATP/glucose. final electron acceptor: inorganic, oxaloacetic acid (4C) + acetyl CoA (2C) = citric acid (6C)
anaerobic respiration>2 no more than 38/36 ATP/glucose. some will use e- transport chain and part or all krebs cycle. final electron acceptor: inorganic.
streptococcus, lactobacillus fermlactic acid ferm
saccharomyces (yeast) fermethanol and co2, alcohol ferm
electron carrier flavoproteincontain flavin, coenzyme derived from riboflavin, vit. b2.
electron carrier cytochromesproteins that contain iron side groups
electron carrier ubiquinonescoenzyme q, low molecular weight, non protein
allelevariation of gene
Mendelfather of genetics, dominant and recessive genes
rrhomozygous recessive
Rrheterozygous
RRhomozygous dominant
mixed acid fermentationCO2 and H2
carbohydratesmonosaccharides and polysaccharides
lipidsmonoglycerides and triglycerides
proteinsamino acids and peptides
nucleic acidsnucleotides and DNA
gram stainingclassifies bacteria into two large groups, gram positive and gram negative. primary stain cv, mordant iodine, decolorizing agen alcohol acetone, counterstain safranin
taxonomy of bacteriadomain bacteria, phylum G+, G-, cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, chlamydias, green nonsulfur bacteria, spirochetes, green sulfur bacteria, thermotoga, bacteroides
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Section 2

Question Answer
DNA expressionDNA > one gene > transcription > mRNA > translation (protein synthesis) > protein/product
DNA replicationmother cell > 2 genetically identical daughter cells, entire genome is copied
transformationGriffiths experiment: live recipient bacteria pick up DNA fragments from dead donor bacteria
conjugationlive donor bacterium transfers DNA to live recipient bacterium, F- > F+ sex pilli, most DNA transformation
transductionbacteriophage acts as a vector to transfer DNA from dead donor bacterium to live recipient bacterium, lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle
transpositionsome genes can move within genome, transposons: jumping genes, transgenic: genes from at least 2 different organisms
gene structurepromoter, operator, structural gene, and terminator regions
transcriptionDNA > mRNA. RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter region that marks the beginning of a gene, mRNA synthesized by complementary base pairing, RNA poly moves down DNA until terminator region
explain prokaryotes mRNAfunctional immediately because transcription and translation occur simultaneously
explain eukaryotes mRNApost transcriptional modification occurs to the mRNA
post transcriptional modification of mRNAgene is composed of exons and introns by RNA poly, processing involves SNRNPS, before translations, introns are cut out of the mRNA and exons are spliced together
translationmRNA > protein. initiation, elongation, termination. 5' end of mRNA binds to small subunit of ribosome, larger subunit binds to that and becomes active, codons move through P site (peptidyl) and A site (acyl)
AUGstartre codon, amino acid methionine MET
stop codonsUAA, UAG, UGA
operon systemone mRNA contains instructions for several products, energy conserving
if a gene is oninduced, operator region open, inducers
if a gene is offrepressed, operator region blocked, repressors
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Section 3

Question Answer
define metabolism, describe differences between anabolism and catabolismmetabolism: sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism. anabolism: build up macromolecules by combining simpler molecules and using energy. catabolism: break down macromolecules into simple parts, releasing energy
identify the role of ATP as an intermediate between catabolism and anabolismcatabolic reactions provide building blocks for anabolic reactions and hold the energy (ATP) needed to drive anabolic reactions
identify components of an enzymeprotein portion: apoenzyme and nonprotein portion: cofactor
describe the mechanism of enzymatic activitywhen an enzyme and substrate combine, the substrate is transformed, and the enzyme is recovered
list factors that influence enzymatic activitytempurature (high, denaturation, low, reax rate decreases), pH (optimum pH), substrate concentration (reax rate increases until saturation), competitive v noncompetitive inhibitors
ribozymeenzymatic RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis
what is meant by oxidation-reductionoxidation is removal of an electron from a substrate, reduction is gaining of an electron. each time something is oxidized, simultaneously something is reduced
three types of phosphorylation reactions that generate ATPsubstrate level phos - high energy P from intermediate in catabolism is added to ADP, oxidative phos - energy released from ETC and to inorganic compound, photophos - light trapped by chlorophyll electrons go thru acceptors
overall function of biochemical pathwaysorganisms release and store energy by controlled reactions rather than single burst, this would damage the cell if it was released all at once
chemical reactions of glycolysisoxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid (2 ATP substrate-level), production of 2 NADH by reducing NAD+ (6 ATP oxidative in ETC), preparatory step: formation of acetyl CoA produces 2 NADH (6 ATP oxidative in ETC)
chemical reactions of krebs cycleoxidation of succinyl CoA to succinic acid (2 GTP substrate-level), production of 6 NADH (18 ATP oxidative in ETC), production of 2 FADH (4 ATP oxidative in ETC), gives off CO2
describe chemisomotic model for ATP generationNADH pass down ETC some carriers in the chain actively transport protons across the membrane, this establishes proton gradient, and ends with proton motive force from H+ on one side of the membrane, protons pass thru membrane with ATP synthase, energy is released ATP systhesized
aerobic v anaerobic respirationaerobic: final electron acceptor is o2. anaerobic: final electron acceptor isn't o2, may be NO3-, SO4 2-, or CO3 2-
describe fermentation and some productsreleases energy from sugars or other organic molecules by oxidation, final electron acceptor is organic, lactic acid: pyruvic acid reduced by NADH to lactic acid, alcohol: pyruvic acid reduced by NADH to ethanol
how are lipids and proteins prepared for glycolysislipases hydrolyze lipids into glyveral and fatty acids, fatty acids are catabolized by beta oxidation, amino acids must be converted by transamination, decarboxylation, or desulfurization to be catabolized
light v dark reactions of photosynthesislight energy used to convert ADP and P to ATP, in dark reactions, energy from ATP is used to reduce CO2 to sugar
summarize energy production in cellsorganisms obstain energy from oxidative reactions, must have an electron donor to use the energy, electrons from chem energy are transferred to electron carriers like coenzymes, this is oxidation reduction, and all organisms use this along with a final electron acceptor
organisms nutritional patternsphototrophs: use light as primary energy source. chemotrophs: use oxidation reduction of inorganic/organic compounds for energy. autotrophs: self fedders use co2. heterotrophs: feeds on others, organic carbon source for energy
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Section 4

Question Answer
geneticsstudy of what genes are, how they carry info, how they express it, and replicate it
genomegenetic information in a cell
chromosomestructures containing DNA that physically carry hereditary info
genesegments of DNA that code for functional products
genetic codeset of rules that determines how a nucleotide sequence is converted into amino acid sequence of protein
genotypegenetic makeup, all DNA
phenotypeactual expressed properties
genomicssequencing and molecular characterization of genomes
how DNA serves as genetic infogenetic info is encoded by base pairs along a strand of DNA
describe the process of DNA replicationtwo strands of double helix separate at replication fork, each strand used as a template by DNA polymerases to synthesize two new strands of DNA according to rules of base pairing
describe protein synthesistranscription: RNA polymerase synthesizes a strand of RNA from DNA, RNA processing: RNA synthesized from nucleotides RNA polymerase binds to promoter and transcription begins, translation: mRNA is used to dictate amino acid sequence of a protein
genetic recombination in bacteriatransformation:genes transferred from one bacterium to another as naked DNA in solution, conjugation: contact between living cells genetic donor cell is F+ recipient cells are F-, transduction: DNA passed from one bacterium to another by bacteriophage
functions of plasmids and transposonsplasmids are self replicating circular molecules of DNA carrying genes not essential for survival. transposons are small segments of DNA that can move from one region to another region of same chromosome or to different chromosome
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