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Micro Lecture Exam III

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hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-04-27 04:23

Section 1

Question Answer
diplococcipairs of cocci
streptococcichain of cocci
tetradfour cocci
sarcinaeeight cube like cocci
staphylococcimultiple planes, grape like structure of cocci
diplobacillipair of bacillus
streptobacillichain of bacillus
coccobacillusoval cluster of bacillus
vibro spirillicurved rod spirilli
spirillumhelical shape like corkscrew spirilli
spirochetehelical and flexible spirals
odd shaped bacteriastar shaped, rectangular shaped
peritrichousflagella all over cell
monotrichoussingle flagella
lophotrichousmultiple flagella on one end
amphitrichousmultiple flagella on both ends
flagellar energyproton pumps (H+), chemotaxis (movement in response to chem. stimuli), phototaxis (movement in response to light stimuli)
G+ cell wallspeptidoglycan is a polymer of repeating chain NAG: N-acetylglucosamine and NAM: N-acetylmuramic acid, pentaglycine forms crossbridges to hold them together
G- cell wallsmonolayer of peptidoglycan, NAG NAM tetrapeptide present, no pentaglycine, no teichoic acid. periplasmic space: located between cell mem and outer cell mem.
G- cell membranephospholipid bilayer, LPS lipopolysaccharide, O antigen (o polysaccharide), lipid A: becomes endotoxin when G- cells die
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Section 2

Question Answer
Prokaryotic cellsprokaryotic cells
cytoplasmsemifluid substance within cell membrane, 80% water. contains nutrients, enzymes, electrolytes & other solutes. metabolic rxns occur here
ribosomessite of protein synthesis, composed of nucleic acids, 2 pieces: large and small subunit, 70S ribosomes
streptomycin will target which organelle in prokaryotes?ribosomes
nucleoid/nuclear arearegion in cytoplasm where DNA is concentrated, no nuclear envelope, no histones, single circular chromosomes
plasmidsmay be present in addition to single circular chromosomes, small circular pieces of double stranded DNA, seperate from chromosome. may contain 5 - 100 genes. antibiotic resistance, toxin production. can design plasmids: insulin.
metachromatic granulesstorage of inorganic phosphates
polysaccharide granulesglycogen and starch storage
sulfur granulesenergy reserve
carboxysomeCO2 fixation enzymes
magnetosomesiron oxide and hydrogen peroxide catabolism
lipid inclusionslipid storage
gas vacuolesgive buoyancy to aquatic photosynthetic prokaryotes
conjugation pili (sex pili)single long hollow tube in some G- bacteria, F+: can make plasmid copies, F-: cant make plasmid copies. G+ cells: mating bridge
fimbriae (attachment pili)multiple short hollow appendages, allow microbe to attach to surfaces and to one another, not flagella but look similar
axial filamentsin prokaryotes: only in spirochetes (corkscew), increases motility, in external cell wall covered by outer sheath
glycocalyxextracellular polymeric substance, outside cell wall, not all prokaryotes have it, made of extracellular carbs and proteins
cell membrane functionselective permeability, enzymes for ATP production, cell wall production, photosynthetic pigments chromatophores or thylakoids. damage to cell membrane: alcohol, quaternary ammonium, polymyxin antibiotics
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Section 3

Question Answer
passive transport processesbrownian motion and kinetic energy
active transport processeschemical energy, substances moved against conc. gradient, needs transport protein and ATP, Na+/K+ pump and proton pump
simple diffusionpassive, movement of solute from area of high conc. to area of low conc.
facilitated diffusionpassive, solute combines with transporter protein in membrane
osmosispassive, movement of water across selectively permeable membrane from high conc. to low conc.
group translocationactive, prokaryotes only, substance taken in and chemically modified so it cant exit, requires transporter proetin and PEP
endocytosisactive, eukaryotes only, phagocytosis: pseudopods extend and engluf particles. pinocytosis: membrane folds inward bringing in fluid and dissolved substances
exocytosisactive, eukaryotes only, secretion
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Section 4

Question Answer
nucleussurrounded by nuclear membrane (envelope) contains chromatin: uncoiled chromosomes, RNA, proteins, nucleolus: makes RNA
rough endoplasmic reticulumstudded with ribosomes, site of protein synthesis, phospholipid synthesis
smooth endoplasmic reticulumlipid synthesis including phospholipids, sterols, fats, detoxification site, sequesters ions in some cells
golgi apparatusmodifies products for secretion or intercellular use, makes lysosomes
lysosomesmade in golgi, remain in cell, contain hydrolytic enzymes
peroxisomescontain catalase which detoxifies hydrogen peroxide
mitochondriaATP synthesis, has DNA and 70S ribosomes, can divide independently of the rest of the cell
chloroplastsprokaryotes, photosynthesis, only in phototrophs, has DNA and 70S ribosomes, can divide independently from rest of cell
flagellaeukaryotes, attaches by basal body, 9+2 arrangement, 9 around and 2 in center
cytoskeleton componentsmicrotubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, centrioles (centrosomes)
cytoskeletonstructural support, moves substances within cell, cytoplasmic streaming, generate spindle fibers for cell division
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Section 5

Question Answer
oxidationgain oxygen, remove electrons, remove hydrogens
reductionremove oxygen, gain electrons, gain hydrogens
metabolic pathwaysequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in the cell, regulated by enzymes that are encoded by genes
catabolic pathways1. fermentation (not alot of ATP/glucose used) 2. cellular respiration/aerobic (most ATP used) 3. anaerobic respiration (not alot of ATP used)
enzymesbiological catalyst, specific for chemical reactions, help speed up reactions
enxyme activitycollision theory: chemica lreactions can occur when atoms, ions, and molecules collide
activation energyminimum energy needed so reaction will occur
reaction ratefrequency of collisions with enough energy to bring about a reaction, can be increased by enzymes, temp, or pressure
apoenzymeinactive (protein)
cofactorsactivators (nonprotein), organic: coenzyme, derived from vitamins. inorganic: trace elements, derived from minerals
haloenzymeactive (whole enzyme)
oxidorductaseoxidation reduction reaction
transferasetransfer function groups
hydrolasehydrolysis
lyase removal of atoms with out water
isomeraserearrangement of atoms
ligasejoining of molecules using ATP
enzyme inhibitorscompetitive inhibitors, noncompetitive inhibitors (allosteric), feedback inhibitors (end product)
ribozymesRNA that cuts and spices other RNA molecules
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Section 6

Question Answer
substrate level phostransfer of high energy PO4- from organic to ADP
oxidative phosredox reaction used to generate ATP by electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. in euk: mitochondria, in prok: cell membrane
photophosoccurs in photoautotrophs, light causes chlorophyll to give electrons, energy released from oxidation of cholorophyll through system of carrier molecules used to generate ATP
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Section 7

 

Question Answer
health habits of successful students1. eat right and exercise 2. sleep 3. get help when needed 4. manage stress 5. set goals and write them down
stress number28.8%
psychological counselingfree visit with licensed clinical therapist, brief, solution focused therapy, most concerns can be resolved, 50 minute appointments
increase of cortisoldecrease in immunity
life balance pyramidtop to bottom. immediate coping (how you relax yourself,daily supportive activity (food, laughing), lifelong foundations (sense of purpose, set goals)
dental healtheffects premature and very small babies, worsens diabetes, play a part in heart, brain, and lung dz
flusudden onset fever over 100, headache, body pain, nausea vomiting, 10-14 days to get coverage from vaccine
vaccinesdont cause flu, protects family, critical for those with asthma or respiratory conditions, prevent attachment of virus cells to body, antiviruses work to stop replication
ILIinfluenza like illnesses
measures to stay healthykeep immune system strong, stay current with vaccinations, shingles shot for people over 50, avoid close contact with sick, cover mouth and nose, stay home
sleep importanceless than 6 hours contributes to 50% reduction in T cell
learn bettermake sleep a priority, dont vary by more than 2 hours from day to day
alcohol's impact on studentsmore drinks per week = lower grades
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