Micro Block 3-Pt 1

ptheodore's version from 2015-07-31 18:26

Clostridium botulium

Question Answer
Detection for clostridium botuliumDetection of toxin activity in serum
Treatment for clostridium botuliumBotulinum antitoxin
Ingestion of spores from honeyClostridium botulium
Ingestion of preformed toxin (Adults) from foodClostridium botulium
Descending paralysis Clostridium botulium
Blocks release of acetylcholine at the myoneuronal junction flaccid paralysisClostridium botulium
Blurred vision, drooping eyelids, dry mouth, slurred speechClostridium botulium
Treatment wound botulismMetronidazole or penicillin
Destroying preformed toxin in canned foodsClostridium botulium
Heat labile (destroyed at 60⁰C for 10 minutes) Clostridium botulium (Spores in general)
Floppy baby syndromeClostridium botulium
How do Adults get Clostridium botulium?Consuming food (preformed toxin)
How do infants get Clostridium botulium?Ingestion of spores
Black tar heroin (IV) users, trauma implantation or surgeryClostridium botulium

Clostridium perfringens

Question Answer
Double-zone of beta-hemolysisClostridium perfringens
Treatment for Clostridium perfringensClindamycin and Penicillin
Food poisoning , Cellulitis, Myonecrosis (Gas gangrene), Suppurative myositis (fasciitis)Clostridium perfringens
α-Toxin (lecithinase), Specifically targets lecithin and destroys membraneClostridium perfringens
Enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringensDisrupts ion-transport (ileum) → watery diarrhea
Gas formation in soft tissue – crepitusClostridium perfringens
Clostridium perfringens toxin that disrupts tight cell junctions and causes food poisoningEnterotoxin
Self-limiting, watery diarrhea (1 or 2 days) . Starts 8-18 hours after ingestion of contaminated food (Ingest spore, NOT preformed toxin)Clostridium perfringens
Gas formation in soft tissue. Accumulation of pus (suppuration) in the muscle planes. Gas formation in soft tissue – crepitusClostridium perfringens
Edema, gas, exudates with a musty sweet odor.Clostridium perfringens

Neisseria menigitidis

Question Answer
Treatment for Neisseria menigitidisCeftriaxone / cefotaxime
Petechial rash with meningitidisNeisseria menigitidis
Breaks down maltose & glucose (MeninGococcos) Neisseria menigitidis
Polysaccharide capsule , IgA protease, Endotoxin (Lipooligosaccharide (LOS)) causeEndothelial Injury
Treatment for friends Neisseria menigitidisRifampin or ciprofloxacin
Failure of adrenal gland function due to bleeding into gland Bilateral adrenal hemorrhageNeisseria menigitidis
Conjugate meningococcal vaccine (MCV4) & serogroup BNeisseria menigitidis
Gram negative diplococci (pairs). Oxidase positive, catalase positiveNeisseria Species
Main virulence factor for Neisseria menigitidisPolysaccharide capsule (Antiphagocytic)
Complement deficiency (C5-C8) & Asplenia are risk factors for severe infection ofNeisseria menigitidis
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome Neisseria menigitidis complication
Gram stain CSF, Numerous PMNs & GN diplococciNeisseria menigitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Question Answer
Antigenic and Phase variation (pili)Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Endocervicitis & Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Urethritis, Septic arthritis, Ophthalmia neonatorumNeisseria gonorrhoeae
Patients with gonorrhea should be tested for Chlamydia trachomatis infection also (concurrent infection)Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Thayer Martin media (chocolate agar with antibiotics to supress other bacteria – normal flora)Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Vancomycin, colistin, nystatin and trimethoprim (VPN agar)Thayer Martin media
Treatment for Neisseria gonorrhoeaeCeftriaxone
Treatment for Neisseria gonorrhoeae & ClamydiaCeftriaxone & Doxycycline
Gram stain CSF, Numerous PMNs & GN diplococciNeisseria menigitidis
Gram negative diplococcus (kidney-shaped cocci). Oxidase +, catalase +. Breaks down only Glucose (Gonococcus)Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Urethritis, Endocervicitis, Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), Ophthalmia neonatorum (Neonatal conjunctivitis), Septic arthritisNeisseria gonorrhoeae
Gonococcemia most commonly results inSeptic/Purulent arthritis

Moraxella & Acinetobacter

Question Answer
Otitis media, Sinusitis, Bronchitis and pneumonia (in elderly pts with COPD)Moraxella catarrhalis
Treatment for Moraxella catarrhalisAmoxicillin + clavulanate or Cefuroxime
Pneumonia (ventilator associated pneumonia) & Wound infections (high incidence in army personnel injured in Iraq and Afghanistan)Acinetobacter


Question Answer
Gram negative rod, Oxidase + *, NLF on MA. Aerobic *(non-fermentative). Produces pigments; Pyocyanin – blue-green. Grape-like / fruity aromaPseudomonas aeruginosa
In hot tubs, sinks, vases. In hospitals – contaminates intravenous tubing, respiratory therapy equipment. Produces blue green pigmentPseudomonas aeruginosa
Opportunistic pathogen in those with; Neutropenia, Cystic fibrosis. Immunocompromised patientsPseudomonas aeruginosa
Major cause of Nosocomial infections; Immunocompromised hospitalized patients on broad-pectrum antibiotics. Burn wounds / surgical wounds. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa major virulence factorsAlginate capsule, Exotoxin A & Pyocyanin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A is similar to what oher toxinDiphtheria.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin that blocks protein synthesis at EF-2Exotoxin A
Swimmer’s ear, otitis externa, Hot tub folliculitis, eye infectionsPseudomonas sepsis
Ecthyma gangrenosum; Hemorrhagic pustule with surrounding erythema, necrotic ulcer (black center)Pseudomonas sepsis
Methods that Pseudomonas use for drug resistantAltered Porin proteins, Beta-lactamases, Multi-drug Efflux pumps
Treatment for Pseudomonas using Antipseudomonal beta-lactam + aminoglycosidePiperacillin + Tobramycin
Treatment for Pseudomonas using Antipseudomonal penicillin + beta-lactamase inhibitorPiperacillin + Tazobactam
Drug of choice for PseudomonasPiperacillin
Associated with burn patients & urinary tract infectionsPseudomonas sepsis

Haemophilus influenzae

Question Answer
PRP (polyribitol phosphate) capsule, Meningitis, Epiglottitis, CellulitisTypeable Haemophilus influenzae
Otitis media, Sinusitis, BronchopneumoniaNon-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae
Hemin (factor X) and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide NAD-(factor V), Chocolate agar (heated blood agar)Haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus influenzae virulence factorsType b → polyribitol phosphate & IgA protease
CSF gram stain . Meningitis in unvaccinated children Confirm with culture: Chocolate agar (has X & V factors)Haemophilus influenzae type b
Treatment for meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzaeCeftriaxone
Treatment for Sinusitis & Otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzaeAmpicillin
Haemophilus influenzae; Hib vaccine is made against thePolyribitol capsule conjugated with protein
Pleomorphic GNB (Small coccobacilli) that causes Acute purulent conjunctivitis, “pink eye”Haemophilus aegyptius
Causes; Genital ulcers – “Chancroid”, an STD; Soft, painful ulcer. Slow to heal without treatment. Open lesions increase transmission of HIV.Haemophilus ducreyi

Bordetella pertussis

Question Answer
Vaccine for Bordetella pertussis Tdap & DTaP
What's wrong with the Bordetella pertussis vaccineImmunity in vaccinated individuals wanes over time
Filamentous hemagglutinin, Adenylate cyclase toxin (Increase in cAMP), Tracheal cytotoxinBordetella pertussis
How does Pertussis toxin work?Increase in cAMP, Promotes lymphocytosis
Sever cough in Unvaccinated babies and Vaccinated individuals in whom immunity has wanedWhooping Cough (Bordetella pertussis)
Bordet-Genou medium / Regan-Lowe medium; Has charcoal addedBordetella pertussis (diagnosis)
Treatment for Bordetella pertussisErythromycin & TMP-SMX
Expectant mothers should receive pertussis vaccine during each pregnancy at27-36 weeks

Legionella pneumophila

Question Answer
Facultative intracellular. Reservoir; Air-conditioning cooling towers, Hot water heaters, Hot-tubs, Grocery store produce sprayers Legionella pneumophila
Buffered charcoal yeast extract medium (BCYE) with L-cysteineLegionella pneumophila
Sputum gram stain reveals neutrophils but no bacteriaLegionella pneumophila
Legionella pneumophila uses which secretion system to inject its proteinsinto the cytosol of the phagosome causing the phagosomal membrane to burstType 4 Secretion Systems (T4SS) to inject proteins
Which immune system is primarily used to clear Legionella pneumophila from the bodyCell mediated
Facultative intracellular bacterium. Able to infect and replicates inside macrophages. Inhibits phagolysosome fusion. Uses DOT Type 4 secretion system (T4SS)Legionella pneumophila
Pontiac fever. Atypical pneumonia. Acute lobar pneumonia + major confusion + diarrhea. Dry, NON-PRODUCTIVE COUGH. Gram stain of sputum – neutrophils but no bacteriaLegionella pneumophila
Silver-stain, Urine Antigen detection, BCYE (buffered charcoal yeast extract)Legionella pneumophila
Treatment for Legionella pneumophilaMacrolide (Azithromycin, clarithromycin)
Smoker with headache, diarrhea, fever, hyponatremia and confusionLegionella pneumophila