Micro Block 2-Drugs

ptheodore's version from 2015-07-06 15:37

Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis

Question Answer
DOC for treatment of syphilisPenicillin V
Treatment & prophylaxis of rheumatic feverPenicillin V
DOC for Listeria infectionsAminopenicillins (Ampicillin, amoxicillin)
Treatment very effective against Enterococci (GP)Aminopenicillins (Ampicillin, amoxicillin)
Oral DOC for Staphylococcal skin infections, abscessesCloxacillin, Dicloxacillin (oral)
IV DOC for Staphylococcal skin infections, abscessesMethicillin, Nafcillin, Oxacillin (IV)
DOC for MRSA- Methicillin-Resistant Staph aureus & MRSE* - Methicillin-Resistant Staph epidermidisVancomycin
Treatment for meningitis in adultsCeftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporins)
Treatment for meningitis in childrenpenicillin/ampicillin plus aminoglycoside or Cefotaxime (3rd generation cephalosporins).
DOC for gonorrhoeaeceftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporins)
Treatment for Pseudomonas infectionsPipercacillin & Ceftazidime
Treatment for sinusitis, otitis media, bronchitisAmoxicillin
Compounds that irreversibly bind to and inactivate some types of beta-lactamase enzymes produced by bacteria. Are relatively inactive at inhibiting bacteria on their own. Always used in combination with a cell-wall active penicillinClavulanic acid (clavulanate)
Examples of 1st generation cephalosporinsCephalexin (oral), cefazolin (parenteral)
Examples of 2nd generation cephalosporinsCefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefotetan
Examples of 3rd generation cephalosporinsCefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime
Example of 4th generation cephalosporinsCefepime
Empirical treatment of nosocomial infections by suspected beta-lactamase-producing bacteriaCefepime
Example of 5th generation cephalosporinsCeftaroline
What drug is always used in combination with CilastinImipenem
Reserved for treatment of hospital-acquired multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (including Pseudomonas)Aztreonam
Treatment for Pseudomembranous colitisVancomycin
Treatment for vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)Streptogramin (Quinupristin-dalfopristin) & Linezolid
Topical treatment for Staphylococcal & Streptococcal skin infectionsBacitracin

Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis


Question Answer
Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin & Tobramycin)Protein Synthesis inhibitors (PSI) acting at 30s subunit
TetracyclinesProtein Synthesis inhibitors (PSI) acting at 30s subunit
ChloramphenicolProtein Synthesis inhibitors (PSI) acting at 50s subunit
Erythromycin (Macrolide)Protein Synthesis inhibitors (PSI) acting at 50s subunit (Reversibly binds to 23s subunit of 50s)
LinezolidProtein Synthesis inhibitors (PSI) acting at 50s subunit
Lincosamide (Clindamycin)Protein Synthesis inhibitors (PSI) PSI acting at 50s subunit
StreptograminsProtein Synthesis inhibitors (PSI) acting at 50s subunit
For aerobic Gram-positive bacteria useAminoglycoside + Beta-lactam/Vancomycin
Binds reversibly and blocks aminoacyl t-RNA from binding to mRNA-30s ribosome complexTetracyclines
Drug that produces the following side effects; Yellowish-brown discoloration of teeth, Skeletal deformity and growth retardationTetracyclines
Treatment of community-acquired Atypical pneumonia (Legionella, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma) as well as Upper respiratory tract infectionsErythromycin (Macrolide)

Mechanisms of Drug Resistance

Question Answer
Method that E.coli and other Enterobacteriaceae use against tetracyclines for drug resistanceExpulsion of drug from bacterial cell via Efflux pumps
Method that VISA (vancomycin intermediate Staph aureus) use for drug resistanceThickening of cell wall
Method of resistance against beta-lactam drugsBeta-lactamase enzymes
Method of resistance against aminoglycosidesPhosphorylases, adenylases, acetylases**
Method of resistance used by Methicillin-resistant Staph aureusAlteration in PBPs (encodes mecA gene)
Method of resistance used by Streptococcus pneumoniaeAlteration in PBPs
Method of resistance against vancomycinD-Ala – D-Ala replaced by D-Ala – D-Lac in the pentapeptide chain
Method of resistance used by bacteria to gain Staphylococcal resistance to penicillin as well as Enterobacteriaceae resistance to penicillins, and cephalosporins resistanceBeta-lactamases
Method of resistance used against ClindamycinMethylation of 23s rRNA
Method of resistance used by Staph resistance to Methicillin, Strep pneumoniae resistance to penicillinChanges in PBPs

Inhibitors of Nucleic acid synthesis


Question Answer
Bacteria synthesize their own folate from precursors likePara-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA)
Inhibits folate synthesisTrimethoprim (antimetabolite)
Sulfamethoxazole (SXT) & trimethoprim (TMP)Cotrimoxazole
DOC for Pneumocyctis jiroveciiSMX + TMP = Cotrimoxazole
Treatment for Urinary tract infection (uncomplicated)SMX + TMP = Cotrimoxazole
Bactericidal drugs that inhibit bacterial enzymes needed for DNA replication (DNA topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) & DNA topoisomerase IV)Fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin)
DOC for Complicated UTICiprofloxacin
Treatment for Typhoid feverCiprofloxacin
Drug that Should not be given to children and pregnant women. Get deposited in cartilage and damage its matrix. Danger of ruptured tendonsFluoroquinolones
Treats Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas, Gardenella vaginalis, Anaerobes (Bacteroides, C.difficle). Used with a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycin for “triple therapy” against H.pylori. “GET GAP on the Metro with metronidazole"Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Drug that have Disulfiram like reaction with alcohol. Presents as nausea, vomiting, headache, tachycardia, CV collapseMetronidazole



Question Answer
DOC for AnthraxCiprofloxacin or doxycycline
DOC for tetanusMetronidazole (Inhibitors of Nucleic acid synthesis. Forms free radical toxic metabolites in bacterial cell -> damage)
DOC for Clostridium Difficile Metronidazole or Vancomycin (Oral)
DOC For EndocarditisPenicillin G + aminoglycoside
Treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS)Oral Penicillin / Amoxicillin
Impetigo with Strep A and Staph aureus – useNafcillin
DOC for Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)Metronidazole or penicillin (only for wound botulism)
DOC for Clostridium perfringens Clindamycin and penicillin

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