Micro BLock 1-Pt. 1

ptheodore's version from 2015-10-02 22:27

Virology Inclusion Bodies

Question Answer
Negri (cytoplasmic)Rabies
Guarneri (cytoplasmic) BodiesPox (Small & Monkey)
Owl’s eye Basophilic (nuclear)Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Cowdry type A (Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies with halo)HSV, VZV
Basophilic intranuclear inclusionsAdenovirues
Lymphocytosis (Atypical Downey cells)Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)
Giant multinucleated cells with cytoplasmic inclusionsMeasles (Rubeola) & Mumps
Pox virus causes intracytosplamic inclusion pink blobs calledGuarnieri bodies
Causes angiogenesis via dysregulation of vGEFKaposi's Sarcoma
Infects B-cells, can cause primary Effusion LymphomaKaposi's Sarcoma
Completely replicate in the cytoplasmPox virus
Remains remnant in mononuclear cells such as B-cells & T-cellsCMV, a type of HSV
The most common cause of blindness (retinitis) is caused byCytomegalovirus (CMV)
A Monospot test for infected CMV patientHeterophiles negative
A Monospot test for an infected EBV patientHeterophiles Positive


Question Answer
Azolestarget ergosterol synthesis of single enzyme
Azores DrugsMiconazole, Clotrimazole, econazole, Itraconazole
Allylaminestarget ergosterol synthesis, Terbinafine
Polyenesdirectly target ergosterol, Amphotericin B, Nysatin
Griseofulvininhibits mitosis by inhibiting microtubules
Use to treat meningitis in CNS, risk of deathAmphotericin B
Drug uses to Tx pneumonia in patient with histoplasmosis darling diseaseItraconazole
Drug uses to Tx histoplasmosis darling disease in disseminated AIDS patientAmphotericin B
Most common AIDS defining disease <200cell/ulPCP (Pneumocystis Pneumonia)
Treatment for PCPTMP-SMX Cotrimoxazole



Question Answer
What is the mode of transmission for HBVBlood exposure, Sexual contact, Vertical (mom to baby)
Active infection of HBVHBsAg + HBeAg
Primary infection of HBVAnti-HBc IgM
Past, Chronic infection HBVAnti-HBc IgG
Immunity of HBVAnti-HBs IgG
Ground glass hepatocytesHBV
Presence of HBsAg and HBeAgActive infection
In HBV the Reverse Transcriptase is targeted byLamivudine
Chronic complications of HBVCirrhosis, Fulmitant hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)


Question Answer
Primary target cells for HIVDendritic cells, macrophages, & T-cells
Early diagnosis for HIVp24 ELISA
HIV screenAnti-gp120 IgG ELISA
Test used to confirm HIVqRT-PCR
Treatment for HIVHAART
Gp120 later binds to CD4 and CXCR4 (activated T-cellsT-tropic
Gp120 first binds to CD4 and co-receptors CCR5 (CD4 T-cells, DCs & macrophages)M-tropic
Protein fusion of viral envelop with cell plasma membraneGp41
How does HIV replicate?Reverse transcriptase, Integrase, Protease
Asymptomatic CD4 count for HIV virus700-1500 cells/microL, normal
What is the CD4 count for HIV patient with oral thrush, herpes zoster, hairy leukoplakia (EBV)200-500 cells/microL
What is the CD4 count for HIV patient w/ P. jiroveci pneumonia (PCP)100-200 cells/microL
What is the CD4 count for HIV patient w/ Toxoplasmosis Cryptosporidiosis<100 cells/microL
What is the CD4 count for HIV patient w/ CMV retinitis, MAC, Cryptococcosis<50 cells/microL
Screening test used to detect Abs in HIV patient at stage 2, asymptomaticELISA (error prone)
Confirmatory test used to confirm asymptomatic HIV Abs in stage 2Complete Western Blot
How to evaluate progression of HIV diseaseCD4+ count, mRNA count
Early marker of HIV infection approx. 30 daysELISA P24 antigen
Detection of virus in blood (evaluate viral load for AIDS)qRT-PCR
Detect HIV infection in newborns or HIV & mothersPCR detects integrated virus (provirus)
A tropism inhibitory that binds to CCR5 and block HIV interaction with gp120Maraviroc
One of the most antiviral drugs for HSV 1 & 2, VZV virusesAcyclovir
Formation of cancer cellsOncogenic
Direct destruction of cellsLytic or acute
Virion production remains constantChronic Persistent
Virus remains "silent" and hides out in cellChronic Latent
Most common cause of fungal infection in AIDS patientCandida (Oral thrush)
Most common fungal CNS infection in AIDS patientCryptococcus (Meningitis)
Most common AIDS defining infectionPneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP)
Most common cause of Blindness aka retinitis in AIDS patientCMV
Most common pathogenic diarrhea in AIDS patientsCryptosporidium
Most common cause of focal space occupying lesions in AIDS patientsCNS toxoplasma
Some examples of HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)Abacavir, Zidovudine, lamivudine (Trizivir)
Inhibits HSV penetrationTromantadine
Inhibits action of fusion protein gp41 in HIV infectionEnfuvirtide
Prevent uncoating & active against influenza virus AAmantadine & Remantadine
Nucleoside RNA Polymerase inhibitorsRibavirin
Nucleoside DNA Polymerase inhibitorsAcyclovir & Gancyclovir
Missing the -OH group on sugarAcyclovir
Non-nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase InhibitorsNevirapine, Delaviridine & Efavirenz
Integrase inhibitorsRaltegravir & Elvitegravir
Assembly & Release InhibitorsRitonavir & Saquinavir
Screening of asymptomaticELISA to detect Antibodies
Confirmation of asymptomaticComplete Western Blot
Detection of virus in blood & evaluate viral load for AIDSRT-PCR
Detect HIV infection in newborns or HIV positive motherPCR
Early marker of infection less than 30 days past exposureELISA P24 Antigen
Evaluate progression of diseaseCD4 count

Virology Drugs

Question Answer
Acyclovir (ACV) is used to treatHSV & VZV
Gardasil is used to treatHuman PapillomaVirus (HPV)
What are the 4 serotype that Gardasil protects against6,11,16,18
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTis) are used to treatHIV
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTis); AZT (zidovudine), ddC (zalcitabine), ddl (dideoxyinosine), d4T (stavudine), 3TC (lamivudine), abacavir, tenofovir, and emtricitabine.HIV
HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)HIV
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTis), Nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenzHIV
Protease inhibitors, interrupt virus replication at a later step in its life cycle and include ritonavir, saquinavir, indinavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir.HIV
The glycoprotein VP7 subunit attenuated vaccineRotavirus
GanciclovirCytomegalovirus (CMV)
Binds to CCR5 and block the interaction of gp120Maraviroc
Gancicylovir for neonates and immunocompromisedCytomegaloVirus (CMV)
Drug that targets Neuraminadase (NA) Zanamivir & Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
Drug that targets M2 protein of influenzaAmantadine/Rimantadine (A)
Treatment and Prevention HCVRibavirin & Interferon-α
Treatment and Prevention HBVInterferon-α (chronic), Lamivudine/Adefovir (chronic) , Passive IgG (neonates), Subunit vaccine (HBsAg)
When treating HBV what drug would you used to target Reverse TranscriptaseLamivudine
Treatment for Respiratory Syncytial VirusRibavirin
Treatment for Rabies1 dose human rabies Ig (HRIg) & 4 doses of killed vaccine

Complications & Pathogenesis

Question Answer
Oral hairy leukoplakia. CNS, Hodkins, Burkitt’s and nasopharyngeal cancersEpstein Barr Virus (EBV
HSV1 establishes latent infection in nervesTrigeminal ganglia
HSV2 establishes latent infection in nervesSacral ganglia
Clinical presentation of Herpes Simplex VirusPainful vesicles lesions, fever & general malaise
Primary site of infection for HSV-1Mucosa epithelial cell
Site of latency for HSV-1Trigeminal ganglia
Primary site of infection for HSV-2Mucosa
Site of latency for HSV-2Sacral ganglia
Primary site of infection for VZVMucosa of epithelial cell
Site of latency for VZVDorsal root ganglia
Target cells for penetrance of VZVRespiratory epithelial cell
Target cells for systemic & persistence of VZVT-lymphocytes
Target cells for latent & intermediate infection of VZVNerve cells
Target cells for lytic infection of VZVSkin epithelial cells
Mode of prevent against VZVAttenuated vaccine
Initial infection of VZV causesChicken Pox
Reactivation of latent VZV causesShingles (Extremely painful)
A unique characteristic for diagnosis of Chicken PoxAsynchronistic Puritic Rash
VZV complications arePost-herpetic neuralgia, Reye Syndrome (aspirin-induced)
Primary sites of infection for EBVMucosal epithelial cells, B-cells
Site of latency for EBVB-cells
Primary site of infection for CMVMononuclear Cells, Epithelial cells
Site of latency for CMVMononuclear cells
Primary site of infection for HHV-8Dermis
Clinical presentation of primary infection of EBVMononucleosis (Heterophiles +)
Clinical presentation for primary infection of CMVMononucleosis (heterophiles -), cytomegalic inclusion disease
clinical presentation for primary infection of HHV-8Kaposi sarcoma
Current infection of EBVAnti-VCA IgM
Past infection of EBVAnti-EBNA IgG
Hepato-splenomegaly is a clinical vignette forEBV, CMV & HIV
Heterophiles antibodies agglutinate withHorse RBCs
Monospot test is used to detectHeterophile Antibody
VCA IgMcurrent active infection
EBNA AntigenResolved infection
Lytic infection of KSHV/HHV-8 produces viral proteinsactivates vGPCR, increased VEGF, stimulates angiogenesis

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