Micro 3

jennraq2u's version from 2015-09-13 23:54


Question Answer
compoundlight microscopevery small specimens as awell as some fine detail
codenserlenses direct light rays thru the specimen
objective lenseslenses closest to specimen
total magnification (p.56)(x) objective lens by ocular lens magnification
resolution (resolving power)ability of lenses to distinguish 2 points a specified distance apart
Shorther the wavelength of light used in the instrumentthe greater the resolution
refractive indexmeasure of the light-bending ability of a medium
brightfield illuminationproduced from a condenser by focusing the light
darkfield microscope (darkfield condensor w/ opaque disc)live micro-O r/t cant be stained ordanarily/stainging distortes image
phase-contrast microscope (no slides)detailed exam of internal structures in LIVING micro-O/dont have to stain spec
DIFFRACTIONscattering of light rays as they touch a specimen's edge
DIC microscopyuses 2 beams of ight instead of one; images appears 3D
flourescence microscopysubstance absorb short wavelengths of light & give off light @ longer wavelen
FA technique or immunoflorescencedetects bacteria/pathogens w/in cells, tissues or clinical specimens in minutes
confocal microscopyreconstruct 3D images/one plane of small region of specimen is illuminated
two photon microscopylongwavelength (red)light/2 photon instead on 1 to excite fluorochrome 2 light
Scannin Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) (study living cells attached 2nother surfacintepreting the action of a sound wave sent thru a specimen
electron microscopybeam of elctrons used instead of light to see structures too small for reg micro
Transmission Electron microscope (TEM)electron gun r/t ultra thin specimen;placed on copper mesh grid;shadow cast
Scanning Electron Microscoope (SEM)produces image/electron micrograph/ directed over surface of specimen
scanned probe microcscopesuse propes 2 examine surface of specimen w/electrical current;preserves spec
scanning tunneling microscopy (molecules like DNA) (STM) no prepmetal tungsten reveals bumps/depressions of atoms on suface of specimen
Atomic Force Microscopy (STM) no prepmetal/diamond probe records movements of specimen/generates image
Before a specimen can be stained it must be fixed (attatched) to microscope slide=kills micro-O/preserves parts of micro-O
After smear is on slide, fixing occurse by Passing it thru flame of BUnsen Burner several times ; smear side up/alcohol
chromophore(+) & (-) ion that make up stain salts
basic dyespositive ion
acidic dyes negative ion
bacteria slightly negat PH 7
negative stianing preparing colorless bacteria against colored background
simple stainaqueos/alcohol solution; highlight entire micro-O so that cell shapes structurs
mordantchecmial added to intensify stain
diffential stainsreact diff't w/ diff't kinds of bacteria; used to distinguish
Primary Stainbasic purple dye used in gram stain; imparts color to all cells
acid-fast stain (differtiate)binds to bacteria lthat have waxy material in cell walls
special stainsused to isolate specific areas ie. endospores /flagella r/t capsules
capsule stainingmore diff't than reg stain b/c materialas are soluble in water & can be removed
endosporespecial resistant dormant structure formed w/ cell that protects bacterium
flagella stainingmordant & stain carbolfuschito build up diameters of flagella