MGMT Test 3 - Chp 14, 15

stlwalk's version from 2018-04-25 19:37

Chapter 14

Question Answer
Organizational culture dimensionsinnovation, stability, respect for people, outcome orientation, attention to detail, team orientation, aggressiveness
Organizational culture definedvalues/assumptions shared within org, defines what is important, provides direction
Organization culture contentdominant values related to each other, hard to measure because it oversimplifies, and it's fuzzy when there's diverse subcultures (fragmentation) and values exist within individuals, not work units
Describe and discuss the importance of organizational subcultures/counterculturesDominate culture (most widely shared values and assumptions), subcultures (located throughout organization, can enhance or oppose firm's dominant culture), and countercultures (provide surveillance and critique/ethics, source of emerging values)
What are organization culture artifacts?Observable symbols and signs of culture, Physical structures/ceremonies/language/stories, Maintain and transmit organization’s culture, Need many artifacts to accurately decipher a company’s culture
Stories and Legends (Artifacts)social prescriptions of desired behavior, realistic human side to expectations, most effective ones describe real people/assumed to be true/known/prescriptive
Rituals (Artifacts)programmed routines
Ceremonies (Artifacts)planned activities for audience
Language (Artifacts)how employees address each other and outsiders, express emotions, describe stakeholders - leaders use language to anchor or change culture
What makes an organization’s culture strong?Most employees understand/embrace the culture, Values & assumptions are Institutionalized through artifacts, Culture is long-lasting – possibly back to founder(s)
How do you define strong culture?How widely and deeply employees hold the company’s dominant values and assumptions.
Functions of strong culturesestablished norms, social identity, shared mental models
What are the benefits and limitations associated with strong culture?
What is the relationship between organizational culture and performance?
Identify four strategies for changing or strengthening an organization's cultureuse attraction, selection, and socialization for cultural "fit", actions of leaders and founders, support workforce stability and communication, introduce culturally-consistent rewards/recognition, align artifacts with the designed culture
Describe the ASA theory, its components, and the effect it has on the organization over timeOrganizations become more homogeneous (stronger culture) through: A Attraction, S Selection, and A Attrition
Attractionapplicants self-select and weed out companies based on compatible values
Selectionapplicants selected based on values congruent with organization’s culture
Attritionemployees quit or are forced out when their values oppose company values
Describe the organizational socialization processprocess by which individuals learn the values, expected behaviors, and social knowledge necessary to assume their roles in the organization - includes Learning Process (newcomers make sense of organization) and Adjustment Process (newcomers adapt to work roles, norms)
What is a realistic job preview?balance of positive and negative information about the job and work context (information over job before starting the job)

Chapter 15

Question Answer
Describe the elements of Lewin's force field analysis modelDriving forces (push organizations toward change, can be external forces or leader's vision) and Restraining forces (resistance to change - employee behaviors block change process)
What is the process? What has to happen in order for change to occur and what happens once the change has been accomplished?Driving forces have to be much stronger during change and then they level out after the change.
Discuss the reasons people resist organizational changeNegative valence of change (think it'll be bad), fear of the unknown, not-invented-here-syndrome (staff think their ideas were better), breaking routines, incongruent team dynamics (norms contrary to desired change), and incongruent organizational systems (systems reinforce status quo)
Outline six strategies for minimizing resistance to changecommunication, learning, involvement, stress mgt, negotiation, coercion
CommunicationHighest priority and first strategy for change, Generates urgency to change, Reduces uncertainty (fear of unknown), Problems: time consuming and costly
LearningProvides new knowledge/skills, Includes coaching, Helps break old routines and adopt new roles, Problems: potentially time consuming and costly
InvolvementEmployees participate in change process, Helps saving face and reducing fear of unknown, Includes task forces, future search events, Problems: time-consuming, potential conflict
Stress managementWhen previous strategies do not minimize stress enough, Potential benefits, More motivation to change, Less fear of unknown, Fewer direct costs, Problems: time-consuming, costly, doesn’t help all
NegotiationInfluence by exchange – reduces direct costs, May be necessary when people clearly lose something and won’t otherwise support change, Problems: expensive, gains compliance, not commitment
CoercionWhen all else fails: assertive influence, radical form of “unlearning”, Problems: reduces trust, may create more subtle resistance, encourage politics to protect job
Ways to effectively create an urgency for changeinform employees about driving forces, or use persuasive influence and positive vision
Discuss the importance of strategic visionstrategic visions and change (provides sense of direction, identifies success factors, links employee values, minimizes employee fear of the unknown, clarifies role perceptions)
Change agentpossesses knowledge and power to guide and facilitate the change effect, involves transformational leadership
Describe how the MARS model can be applied to diffusion of changeBegin change with a pilot project: Motivation (pilot project employees rewarded, motivate other to adopt pilot project), Ability (train employees), role perceptions (translate pilot project to new situations), and situational factors (provide resources to implement pilot project)