MGMT Test 3 - Chp 11, 12, 13

stlwalk's version from 2018-04-25 19:38

Chapter 11

Question Answer
Define conflictThe process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
Positive consequences of conflictDebate of decision choices, Question assumptions, more creative ideas, Improves responsiveness to external environment, Increases team cohesion (conflict with other teams)
Negative consequences of conflictWastes time/energy/resources, Less information sharing/productivity, organizational politics, job dissatisfaction/turnover/stress, Weakens team cohesion (when conflict is within team)
Task (constructive) conflictParties focus on the issue, respect people with other points of view, Try to understand logic/assumptions of each position
Relationship conflictFocus on personal characteristics (not issues) as the source of conflict, Try to undermine each other’s worth/competence, accompanied by strong negative emotions
Minimizing relationship conflictGoal (encourage task conflict, minimize relationship conflict) and problem (relationship conflict often develops when engaging in task conflict)
Describe three strategies to minimize relationship conflict during constructive conflict episodesEmotional intelligence, Cohesive team, Supportive team norms
Conflict ProcessSources of conflict develop conflict perceptions and emotions which manifests conflict (behavior of one person towards another person) and results in conflict outcomes
Describe six structural sources of conflict in organizationsIncompatible goals, differentiation, interdependence, scarce resources, ambiguous rules, communication problems
Incompatible goalsone party's goals perceived to interfere with other's goals
Differentiationdifferent values/beliefs, explains cross-cultural, generational, and merger conflict
Interdependenceconflict increases with interdependence, parties more likely to interfere with each other
Scarce resourcesmotivates competition for resource
Ambiguous rulescreates uncertainty, threatens goals, encourages political behavior
Communication problemsrely on stereotypes, less motivation to communicate, arrogant language escalates conflict
Outline the five conflict handling stylesForcing (win-lose), problem-solving (win-win), compromising (middle ground), avoiding, and yielding (lose-win).
Forcinghigh assertion, low cooperation; best when there's deep conviction, need quick resolution, other party would take advantage of cooperation
Problem-solvinghigh assertion and cooperation; best when interests are not super opposing, there's openness, complex issues
Compromisingmid assertion and cooperation; best with equal power parties, need quick solution, parties lack trust/openness
AvoidingLow cooperation and assertion; best when conflict is emotional (relationship), conflict resolution costs are higher than benefits
YieldingHigh cooperation and low assertion; best when other party is more powerful, issue is less important to you, logic of your position is flawed
Identify and apply the six organizational approaches to conflict resolutionemphasize superordinate goals (common objective), reduce differentiation (differences in values/experiences), improve comm and understanding (more dialogue), reduce interdependence (combine jobs, create buffers), increase resources, clarify rules and procedures
Describe the strategies for CLAIMING value in negotiations1. Prepare and set goals. 2. Know best alternative to negotiated agreement (BATNA). 3. Manage time (avoid pressure). 4. Manage first offers and concessions.
Describe strategies for CREATING value in negotiations1. Gather information. 2. Discover priorities through offers. 3. Build the relationship (trustworthiness)
Know the three situational influences on negotiations that we discussedLocation (easier to negotiate on your own turf), physical setting (seating arrangements), audience (negotiators make fewer concessions with an audience)

Chapter 12

Question Answer
Define leadershipLeadership is the ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness of the organizations of which they are members
Shared leadershipview that leadership is a role, not a position assigned to one person; flourishes where formal leaders are willing to delegate power, collaborative culture, effective influence skills
Leadership perspectivesTransformational, managerial, implicit, competency
Describe the four elements of transformational leadershipbuild commitment to vision, develop/communicate vision, encourage experimentation, model vision
Strategic visionidealized future with higher purpose, linked to personal values, fulfills needs, challenging objective, unifying
Managerial leadershipDaily activities that support and guide the performance and well-being of individual employees and the work unit to support current objectives and practices; interdependent, assumes environment is stable, micro-focused (day-to-day)
Servant leadership (under managerial)leaders serve followers toward their need fulfillment, development, and growth; selfless, natural calling, humble, ethical decisions and actions
Describe the key features of task-oriented and people-oriented leadership and discuss their effects on followers. Be sure you know which perspective these two types are associated with.
What are the contingencies of path-goal (i.e., under what circumstances would you want to use which style)?low skill and experience, locus of control internal (participation) and external (directive and supportive leadership), nonroutine task structure, low team cohesion and dysfunctional norms
Path-goal leadership (under managerial)leaders choose styles that best influence employee expectations about achieving desired performance and perceived satisfaction with outcomes
What are its key components and styles?Leader behaviors (directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented) are affected by employee and environment contingencies in relation to leader effectiveness (employee motivation, satisfaction, acceptance of leader)
Charismatic leadership
Describe the implicit leadership perspective and prototypesfollower perceptions of characteristics of effective leaders: prototypes (preconceived beliefs about features and behaviors of effective leaders; favor people who fit prototype) and romance of leadership effect (amplify leader's effect on success)
Discuss cultural similarities and differences in leadershipsocietal cultural values and norms shape leader's norms, influence decisions, and shape follower prototype; some leadership styles vary across cultures

Chapter 13

Question Answer
Define organizational structureDivision of labor and patterns of coordination, communication, workflow, and formal power that direct organizational activities
Organizational structure coordinating mechanismsinformal communication, formal hierarchy, standardization
Informal communicationcoordinates work in all firms, vital in nonroutine and ambiguous situations, easiest in small firms, but technology extends its use in large firms, larger firms also apply informal communication through liaison roles, integrator roles, temporary teams
Formal hierarchydirect supervision, assigns legitimate power to manage others, necessary in most firms but has problems
Standardizationcreate routine behavior/output; can standardize processes (job description), outputs (sales targets), and skills (training)
Describe and explain the elements of organizational structureDepartmentalization, span of control, formalization, centralization
Span of controlnumber of people directly reporting to next level (wider is possible when coordination is present, routine tasks)
Centralizationformal decision making authority is held by a few people
Formalizationstandardizing behavior through rules, procedures, training; increases with older firms; problems: less flexibility, discourages org learning, less work efficiency, dissatisfaction, rules/procedures too focused on
Tall organizational structuresgrowing companies have taller hierarchy and wider span; problems: poorer upward info, overhead costs, focus power around managers
Differentiate between mechanistic versus organic structuresMechanistic (narrow span of control, high centralization/formalization) and Organic (wide span of control, decentralized decisions, low formalization)
Functional organizational structuresorganizes employees around specific knowledge or other resources (makes departments); benefits (economies of scale, supports professional identity, easier supervision) but limitations (emphasizes sub-unit more than whole, higher dysfunctional conflict, poorer coordination)
Divisional structureorganizes employees around outputs, clients, or geographical areas - depends on environmental diversity; benefits (building block structure/accomodates growth, focus on market/product/client) but limitations (duplication, resource use inefficient, silos of knowledge (expertise isolated in division))
Team-based structureself-directed work teams organized around work process, typically organic, divisionalized structure; benefits (responsive, flexible, lower admin costs, quick decisions) but limitations (interpersonal training costs, slower coordination, role ambiguity increases stress, team leader issues, duplication of resources)
Project-based matrix structureemployees are assigned to specific project temporarily but a permanent unit; benefits (efficient use of resources, better communication, focuses specialists on clients/products, supports knowledge) but limitations (more conflict among sharers of power, dilutes accountability to one boss, more conflict)
Identify and explain two factors that affect technological use based on an organization’s structurevariability (number of exceptions to standard procedures) and analyzability (predictability of required work)
Describe the organizational strategies that influence structurestructure follow strategy (points to environments which organization will operate in, leaders openly decide structure), innovation strategy (providing unique, customized products), and cost leadership strategy (maximize productivity in order to offer competitive pricing)