MGMT Test 2 - Chp 9-10

stlwalk's version from 2018-04-04 21:48

Chapter 9

Question Answer
Define communicationProcess by which information is transmitted and understood between people - Transmitting intended meaning (not just symbols)
Importance of communicationCoordinating work activities, Organizational learning, Better decision making, Changing others’ behavior, Employee well-being
Understand the sender/receiver model of communication (including noise)Sender forms and sends message, Message is transmitted, Receiver receives and decodes, forms and sends feedback, Feedback is transmitted, Sender receives and decodes feedback
Four ways to improving communication encoding and decodingSender/receiver have similar codebooks, shared mental models of the communication context, Sender is experienced encoding that message, both are motivated and able to use selected channel
What is nonverbal communication and why is it important?Influences meaning of verbal symbols, Less rule bound than verbal communication, Most is automatic and nonconscious; makes up 65% of communication
When choosing a channel to communicate, aside from media richness, you must consider the social acceptance of the channel. What does that mean and what does it depend on?Do others support use of that communication channel for that purpose?; Depends on: Firm/team norms for using the channel, Individual preferences for using the channel, Symbolic meaning of the channel
What is media richness?The channel’s data-carrying capacity (volume and variety of info that can be transmitted at one time) needs to be aligned with the communication activity/purpose; High richness when channel: conveys multiple cues, allows timely feedback, allows customized message, permits complex symbols; Used when situation is nonroutine and ambiguous
Media richness model: What is the richness of certain types of communication? What situations would you want to use these types for?face-to-face and video conference is most rich and nonroutine; financial statements and newsletters are routine and non-rich (lean)
What is information overload?Job’s information load exceeds person’s capacity to process it - information gets overlooked or misinterpreted
How can information overload be reduced?Increase information processing capacity (learn to read faster, remove distractions), reduce information load (buffering, omitting, summarizing)
Persuasive communicationChanging another person’s beliefs and attitudes using facts, logical arguments, AND emotional appeals
When is persuasive communication most effective?accompanied by nonverbal communication, has high quality immediate feedback, has high social presence
Discuss the effects of various barriers (noise) on effective communication.Verbal differences (Language, Voice intonation, Silence/conversational overlaps) and Nonverbal differences (nonverbal gestures are universal, but others vary across cultures)
Be able to explain how men and women tend to communicate differently?Men view conversations as power, status, and functionality (report talk, give advice quickly, dominate convo) and Women consider more interpersonal relations (rapport talk, indirect advice/requests, sensitive to nonverbal cues)
Explain how to get your message across more effectivelyEmpathize with receiver, repeat message, choose situation with few distractions, and focus on problem not the person
Active listeningsensing (avoid interruptions, maintain interest), evaluating (empathize, organize info), and then respond (show interest, clarify message)

Chapter 10

Question Answer
What is the definition of power?The capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others, potential to change attitudes and behavior, people may be unaware of their power, perception – target perceives that powerholder controls a valuable resource (i.e., unequal dependance)
What are the five sources of power in organizations?Legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, referent
Legitimate power (definition, example, source of power(positional or person) )Positional - Agreement that people in certain roles can request certain behaviors of others, based on job descriptions, but also on mutual agreement, Norm of reciprocity -- felt obligation to help someone who has helped you, Information control -- right to distribute information to others, Creates dependence, Frames situation
Reward power (definition, example, source of power(positional or person) )Position - Control rewards valued by others, remove negative sanctions
Coercive power (definition, example, source of power(positional or person) )Position - Ability to apply punishment (i.e., threat)
Expert power (definition, example, source of power(positional or person) )Person - Capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that they value, Doctor – more likely to follow their orders because of assumed Expert Status/Power
Referent power (definition, example, source of power(positional or person) )Person - Capacity to influence others through identification with and respect for the power holder, Associated with charisma
Be able to identify the four contingencies of power.Substitutability, Centrality, Discretion, Visibility
Substitutabilityavailability of alternatives: reduce substitutability though monopoly over resources, controlling access to resource, and differentiating resource
CentralityDegree and nature of interdependence with powerholder, Higher centrality when (a) many people affected and (b) quickly affected
DiscretionThe freedom to exercise judgment, Rules limit discretion, Discretion is perceived by others
VisibilityYou are known as holder of valued resource, Increases with face time, display of power symbols, (e.g. diploma)
What is the definition of influence?any behavior that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behavior, applies to one or more sources of power, essential in organizations to coordinate, its pat of leadership definition, and everyone has influence
What is the difference between power and influence?Influence is power in motion.
Influence tacticssilent authority, assertiveness, information control, coalition formation, upward appeal, persuasion, impression management, and exchange
Silent authority (definition, examples, source of power, hard/soft power)Hard - Following requests without overt influence, Based on legitimate power, role modeling, Common in high power distance cultures
Assertiveness (definition, examples, source of power, hard/soft power) Hard - Actively applying legitimate and coercive power (“vocal authority”), Reminding, confronting, checking, threatening
Information control (definition, examples, source of power, hard/soft power)Hard - Manipulating others’ access to information, Withholding, filtering, re-arranging information
Coalition formation (definition, examples, source of power, hard/soft power)Hard - Group forms to gain more power than individuals alone: Pools resources/power, Legitimizes the issue, Power through social identity
Upward appeal (definition, examples, source of power, hard/soft power)Hard - Appealing to higher authority, Includes appealing to firm’s goals, Alliance or perceived alliance with higher status person
Persuasion (definition, examples, source of power, hard/soft power)Soft - Appealing to higher authority, Includes appealing to firm’s goals, Alliance or perceived alliance with higher status person
Impression management (definition, examples, source of power, hard/soft power)Soft - Actively shaping or public image, Self-presentation, Ingratiation
Exchange (definition, examples, source of power, hard/soft power)Soft - Promising or reminding of past benefits in exchange for compliance, Negotiation, reciprocity, networking
What are the three outcomes of influence, and which is best?Resistance (people oppose behavior desired by influencer), Compliance (motivated by external rewards to implement request), and BEST Commitment (identify with and highly motivated to implement request)
DEFINE hard and soft influence tactics. What makes them different? How do the outcomes compare?(Look up definition) Soft generally more acceptable than hard:
What are the contingencies of influence? What do you need to consider when choosing an influence tactic?appropriate tactic based on influencer's power base, organizational position, and cultural values and expectations
What is the definition of organizational politics (according to the slides/text)?Behaviors that others perceived as self-serving tactics for personal gain at the expense of others (people and possibly the organization). Influence tactics just discussed are deemed Organizational Politics if those tactics are perceived like above
What three conditions contribute to organizational politics?Scarce resources, lack of formal rules, and move to new rules
What are ways to minimize politics?Introduce clear rules for scarce resources, Effective organizational change practices, Suppress norms that support or tolerate self-serving behavior, Leaders role model organizational citizenship, Give employees more control over their work, Keep employees informed
Ingratiationany attempt to increase similarity to some targeted person