MGMT Exam 2

stlwalk's version from 2018-04-04 03:39

Chapter 6

Question Answer
Discuss the meaning of moneyIt motivates; symbol of achievement/status; motivator; performance indicator; anxiety source/avoider; money importance increases with power distance
Strong money ethicnot perceived as evil, is a symbol of achievement/power, and should be budgeted carefully
Men and moneypower/status
Women and moneyinstrumental (exchanged)
Identify several individual, team, and organizational-level performance-based rewardsMembership/seniority based, job status based, competency-based, performance-based
Membership/seniority based rewardsfixed wages, seniority increases - golden handcuffs: tie to one job
Job status based rewardsincludes job evaluation to measure job's worth and status perks - encourages bureaucratic hierarchy
Competency-based rewardsskill-based, increases with competencies acquired and demonstrated - potentially subjective
Performance-based rewardsindividual rewards (bonuses/commissions), team rewards (gainsharing plans), organizational rewards (stock options, profit-sharing)
Describe five ways to improve reward effectivenesslink rewards to performance, ensure relevance of rewards, team rewards for interdependent jobs, valued rewards (valence), beware of unintended consequences
What is job specialization?Dividing work into separate jobs, each with a subset of tasks to complete product/service
What are its advantages and disadvantages of job specialization?Adv: less time lost changing activity, lower training costs, master quickly, better person-job matching; Disad: boredom, discontentment, higher costs, lower quality, lower motivation
What are the core job characteristics of the job characteristics model?skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback from job
Skill varietyuse of different skills and talents to perform tasks within job
Task identitydegree to which job requires completion of whole or identifiable piece of work
Task significancedegree to which a job has substantial impact on organization and/or larger society
Autonomyjobs with high autonomy provide freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling work and determining procedures
Job feedbackdegree to which employees can tell how well they are doing on the basis of direct feedback from the job itself
Understand how core job characteristics can affect motivation in the modelthey affect meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results, but these are all affected by individual differences
Know the three job design methods to improve employee motivation. Hint: One of these was a camera crew of three that became a single video journalist.Job rotation, job enlargement (adding task to existing job), job enrichment (giving employees more responsibility for scheduling, coordination, and planning work)
Know all five elements of self-leadership and be able to define/explain thempersonal goal setting, constructive thought patterns, designing natural rewards, self-monitoring, self-reinforcement
Personal goal settingYOU set personal goals, apply effective goal-setting practices, requires high level of self-awareness
Constructive thought patternsself-talk (increases self-efficacy), mental imagery (mentally practicing task and completing)
Designing natural rewardsfinding ways to make job more motivating
Self-monitoringkeeping track of one's progress toward self-set goal, using naturally-occurring feedback
Self-reinforcementtaking a reinforcer only after completing self-set goal
Identify specific personal and work environment influences on self-leadershipindividual and organization factors affect how well people do at self-leading
As this is a motivation model, consider it in comparison to other motivation models we’ve studied. Why is self-leadership different?Self-leadership effectiveness depends on the individual (better with higher conscientiousness and extroversion), and it works better in workplaces that support empowerment and high trust between employees and management.
Job characteristics modeljob design model that relates the motivational properties of jobs to specific personal and organizational consequences of those properties

Chapter 7

Question Answer
What is decision making?a conscious process of making choices among one or more alternatives with the intention of moving toward some desired state of affairs
Describe the rational choice paradigm. Can you describe it in one sentence?View that effective decision makers identify, select, and apply the best possible alternative
Two main elements of rational choiceSubjective expected utility ( (SEU)–determines choice with highest value (maximization)) and decision making process (systematic stages of decision making)
Steps of rational choice paradigm1. Identify problem or opportunity, 2. Choose the best decision process, 3. Discover or develop alternatives, 4. Select choice with the highest value, 5. Implement the selected choice, 6. Evaluate the selected choice
What are the criticisms of it?Problems/opportunities are constructed from ambiguous information, not “given” to us, Influenced by cognitive and emotional biases
Four problem identification challengesStakeholder framing, Mental models, Decisive leadership, Perceptual defense
How does the rational choice paradigm stack up when compared to observations by organizational behaviorists?Rational choice is limited compared to what is actually observed in the world: Goals are clear, compatible, and agreed on, people calculate alternatives and outcomes, evaluate alternatives simultaneously, use absolute standards to eval alts, make choices using facts, choose alternative w. highest payoff VS Observations from Organization Behavior: goals are ambiguous, conflicting, and lack agreement, people have limited info processing abilities, evaluate alterns sequentially, evaluate against implicit favorite, make choices using perceptually distorted info, choose alternative that's good enough (satisfice)
How can we identify problems effectively (four ways)?Be aware of perceptual and diagnostic limitations, Fight against pressure to look decisive, Maintain “divine discontent” (aversion to complacency), and Discuss the situation with colleagues -- see different perspectives
What is satisficing and when is it likely to occur?choosing first "good enough" alternative - occurs because alternatives present themselves over time, people lack capacity to process all options
Understand and be able to discuss confirmation bias and escalation of commitment
Confirmation biasinflate quality of selected option; forget or downplay rejected alternatives
Escalation of commitmentrepeating or further investing in an apparently bad decision: caused by self-justification effect, self-enhancement effect, prospect theory effect, and sunk costs effect
Could you identify them from an example or give one of your own? (confirm bias and escal commit)
How can decisions be evaluated more effectively?separate decision choosers from evaluators, establish preset level to abandon project, find sources of systematic and clear feedback, involve several people in the evaluation process
Creative processes modelpreparation, incubation, illumination, and verification
Creative work environmentslearning orientation (encouraging experimentation and tolerating mistakes), intrinsically motivating work, open communication and sufficient resources

Chapter 8

Question Answer
What is a team?2+ people, exist to fulfill a purpose, interdependent–interact and collaborate, mutually accountable for achieving common goals–influence each other, perceive themselves to be a team, different from informal groups (satisfy needs)
Advantages of teamsMake better decisions/products/services, Better information sharing, Increase employee motivation/engagement--Drive to Bond/Need for Affiliation
Disadvantages of teamsProcess losses – resources needed for team maintenance, Social loafing – members potentially exert less effort in teams than alone
Know what social loafing is and the different ways it can be minimized.Members potentially exert less effort in teams than alone: increase employee motivation and make individual performance more visible
Should teams be used for any kind of task? What are the best tasks for teams to have and why?Complex tasks divisible into specialized roles, Well-structured tasks – easier to coordinate, Higher task interdependence (sharing of materials, info, and expertise)
Team interdependence: Definition and importanceTeam members must share materials, information, or expertise to perform, Teams are usually better because high interdependence: (a) requires better communication/coordination and (b) motivates team membership
Be able to identify/describe the levels of interdependence as well as give examples. Know how each level is different from the others.Reciprocal (high), sequential, pooled (low) - LOOK UP
Advantages of diversity in teamsview problems/alternatives from different perspectives, broader knowledge base, better representation of team’s constituents
Disadvantages of diversity in teamstake longer to become a high-performing team, susceptible to “faultlines” – team splits into subgroups
Know and be able to define the stages of team development (5 stage model).Forming (learn about each other), Storming (conflict/compete for roles), Norming (roles established), Performing (coordination, cooperate, commit to objectives), and Adjourning (disbanding)
What are team norms ?Informal rules and shared expectations team establishes to regulate member behaviors
How do team norms develop?Initial team experiences, Critical events in team’s history, Experience/values members bring to the team
How do you prevent/change dysfunctional norms when they happen in a team?State desired norms when forming teams, Select members with preferred values, Discuss counter-productive norms, Introduce team-based rewards that counter dysfunctional norms, Disband teams with dysfunctional norms
What is team cohesion?The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members
What contributes to team cohesion being stronger or developing faster?Higher member similarity, Smaller team size, Regular/frequent member interaction, Membership, Higher team success, More external competition/challenges
Why is team cohesion important?High cohesion teams usually perform better because: Motivated to maintain membership and achieve team objectives, Frequently share info, Higher coworker satisfaction, Better social support (minimizes stress), Resolve conflict more swiftly and effectively
Discuss the defining characteristics and of virtual teamsvirtual teams operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries (linked to IT)
Success factors of virtual teamsVirtual team member characteristics, Toolkit of communication channels and freedom to choose best channel, Fairly high task structure, Opportunities to meet face-to-face
Identify constraints on team decision-making associated with production blocking and evaluation apprehension.time constraints (incl. production blocking), evaluation apprehension, peer pressure to conform and suppress opinions, overconfidence caused by high cohesion and resulting in less conflict, worse decisions
Production blockingone person may speak at a time, leads to time constraints and members forgetting/losing ideas
Evaluation apprehensionReluctance to mention ideas that seem silly because of belief of evaluation by other team members