MGMT 3600 Exam 1

stlwalk's version from 2018-02-21 22:47

Section 1

Question Answer
Define organizational behaviorThe study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations.
Define organizationsGroups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose, Collective entities, Collective sense of purpose
Open systems perspectiveSays that organizations are complex systems that "live" within, and are dependent on the external environment.
Why study OB?Satisfy the need to understand and predict, Helps us to test/improve personal theories Influence behavior – get things done, OB improves an organization’s financial health, OB is for everyone
Define intellectual capitalA company's stock of knowledge including human capital (employee knowledge, skills, and abilities), structural capital (knowledge imbedded in organization systems and structures), and relationship capital (value derived from organization's relationships with customers, suppliers, etc).
Define organizational effectivenessThe ultimate dependent variable in OB: the ability of the company to satisfy the needs of stakeholders, it's fit with the environment, it's performance, and emphasis on organizational learning.
Describe the organizational learning perspective of organizational effectivenessAn organization’s capacity to acquire, share, use, and store valuable knowledge. Considers both the stock (intellectual capital) and flow (process of learning/sharing) of knowledge.
Organizational learning perspectiveView knowledge as main driver of competitive advantage; organizational effectiveness depends on organization's capacity to acquire, share, use, and store valuable knowledge.
Identify high‐performance work practicesEmployee involvement, Job autonomy, Develop competencies (training, selection), Performance-based rewards
Explain how the stakeholder perspective emphasizes the importance of values, ethics, and corporate social responsibilityIt personalizes the open systems perspective by requiring the organization to understand, manage, and satisfy the needs of their stakeholders. It includes Corporate Social Responsibility which says that organizations must give back to the community. The Stakeholder perspective emphasizes values and ethics by putting emphasis on and giving attention to everyone not just the profits of the business. The goal is to benefit the community as well.
Summarize the types of individual behavior in organizations - CHAPTER 2Task performance, organizational citizenship, counterproductive work behaviors, joining/staying with organization, and maintaining work attendance
GlobalizationEconomic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world
Effects of globalization on organizations (opportunities and challenges)Larger markets, lower costs, more innovation, increasing diversity, increasing work intensification, less work-life balance
What are the organizational opportunities and challenges of workforce diversity and virtual work?Diversity: Better knowledge, decisions, representation, financial returns. Manage challenges of diversity (e.g. teams, conflict). Ethical imperative of diversity; Virtual work: Telecommuting – issues of social isolation, emphasis on face time, employee self-motivated
Deep-level diversityDifferences in psychological characteristics of employees, including personalities, beliefs, values, and attitudes
Work-life balanceDegree to which a person minimizes conflict between work and nonwork demands.
Virtual workWork performed away from the traditional physical workplace using IT
How are employment relationships changing, and explain why these changes are occurring.Work-life balance and virtual work are becoming more popular with the increase in technology. Now employers have to manage these new problems because of technology.
Absorptive capacityAbility to recognize the value of new info, assimilate it, and use it to add value
Evidence-based managementManagement making decision based on research and evidence
High performance work practicesPerspective which holds that effective organizations incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital.
Organizational efficiencyAmount of outputs relative to inputs in the organization's processes
Organizational learningKnowledge management
Surface-level diversityObservable demographic or physiological differences in people such as age, race, gender, ethnicity and physical disabilities.
ValuesStable beliefs that guide a person's preferences for outcome or courses of action in situations.

Section 2

Question Answer
Describe the four factors that directly influence voluntary individual behavior and performance.Motivation (Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior: direction, intensity, persistence), ability (Aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task), role perceptions (Understand the job duties expected of us), and situational factors (Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior)
What is the MARS model and how does it reflect individual behavior?It is a model that outlines the four drivers of behavior and the results. It shows what happens when an employee lacks or excels in any of the four factors
Define personalityRelatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics;
Summarize the “big five” personality traits in the five‐factor model.Conscientiousness (biggest predictor of performance/emotionally stable), agreeableness (cooperative/helpful), neuroticism, openness to experience (higher creativity/adaptability), extraversion (socially interactive and persuasive; salesman)
Distinguish personal and shared valuesPersonal values are personal and shared are the ones we share with others
Explain why values are importantBecause stable, evaluative beliefs guide our preferences and define right/wrong and what we ought to do; values direct our motivation, potentially decisions and behavior
Task performanceGoal-directed behaviors under individual's control that support organization's objectives
Organizational citizenshipCooperation and helpfulness to others that support the organization’s social and psychological context
Counterproductive work behaviorsVoluntary behaviors that have potential to directly or indirectly harm the organization
Presenteeismattending scheduled work when one’s capacity to perform is significantly diminished by illness or other factors
Discuss what determines an individual’s personality characteristics.Nature (genetic or hereditary origins) vs. Nurture (Socialization, life experiences, learning)
Compared with personality, values are:evaluative (not descriptive), may conflict strongly with each other, affected more by nurture than nature. Values motivate, guide decisions, behavior, and performance
Values congruenceHow closely your values align with your company's values
Describe espoused and enacted valuesEspoused values are what we say we believe in, and enacted values are the ones that are apparent in our actions.
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)Personality test that improves self-awareness of personality but poorly predicts job performance
Five Factor Model (FFM)CANOE
Power DistanceThe extend to which people accept an unequal distributive power in society.
Uncertainty avoidanceDegree to which people tolerate ambiguity (low uncertainty avoidance) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance)
Acheivement-nurturing orientationReflects competitive vs cooperative view of relations with other people

Section 3

Question Answer
Outline the perceptual process (how we take in information).Step 1: Receive environmental stimuli. Step 2: Selective Attention: pay attention to some info and ignore the rest. Step 3: Categorize and Interpret: organize people/things in groups and interpret.
Self-Concept Characteristics (3 C's)Complexity, Consistency, and Clarity
Explain how social identity theory relates to a person’s self‐concept.
Explain how social identity and stereotyping influence the perceptual process.The perceptual process is hurt by stereotyping because it makes you categorize too much in the last step. Social identity and self-enhancement reinforce stereotyping through the Categorization process (putting people in groups), the Homogenization process (assign similar traits within certain groups), and the Differentiation process (assign less favorable attributes to other groups).
Describe the attribution processAttribution process decides whether observed behavior or event is caused by internal or external factors.
Summarize the self‐fulfilling prophecy process.Supervisor forms expectations, expectations affect supervisor's behavior, supervisor's behavior affects employee, and employee's behavior matches expectations.
Describe social identity theory.Theory stating that people define themselves by the groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment.
StereotypingAssigning traits to people based on social category membership.
Self-enhancementRating oneself above average, positive self-concept; drive to promote/protect positive self-view
Self-verificationConform and maintain existing self-concept
Self-evaluationEvaluating yourself by self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control.
Social selfDefining ourselves by group membership
Locus of controlGeneral belief about the amount of control he or she has over personal life events
Self-efficacyBelief that you have the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, and situation to complete task successfully
Confirmation biasScreening out information contrary to our beliefs
Fundamental attribution erroTendency to overemphasize internal causes of another person's behavior, whereas we recognize external influences on our own behavior.
Self-Serving BiasTendency to attribute our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors.
Halo effectOne perceived trait affects perception of other traits of person
False-consensus effectOverestimate how many others have similar beliefs to us
Primacy effectQuickly categorize based on first impressions-difficult to change
Recency effectMost recent information dominates perceptions
Jahari Window

Section 4

Question Answer
Explain how emotions and cognition (conscious reasoning) influence attitudes and behavior.
Identify the conditions that require and the problems associated with emotional labor.More required with frequent/lengthy emotional display, variety of emotions display, and intense emotions display. It's difficult to accurately display expected emotions, to hide true emotions, and there is emotional dissonance (conflict between true and required emotions)
Describe the four dimensions of emotional intelligence.Lowest: Ability to know own emotions, ability to manage our own emotions, ability to know others' emotions, and ability to manage others emotions: Highest
Summarize the consequences of job dissatisfaction in terms of the exit‐voice‐loyalty neglect model.Exit (leaving), Voice (changing situation, problem solving or complaining), Loyalty (waiting for situation to improve), and Neglect (reducing work effort/quality, increasing absenteeism)
Discuss the effects of job satisfaction on job performance and customer service.Job satisfaction is moderately tied to job performance. Sometimes job satisfaction does not increase performance because of factors outside control or does not result in less performance. Customer satisfaction is directly tied to employee satisfaction, though.
Define stressAdaptive response to situations perceived as challenging or threatening to well-being
Describe five strategies to increase organizational (affective) commitment.Justice/support (support wellbeing), Shared values (increase values congruence), Trust (employees trust leaders and job security supports trust), Organization Comprehension (know firm's past/present/future, communicate well), and Employee Involvement (feel part of company, demonstrates trust)
Describe stressPrepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions
Review three major stressors.Harassment and incivility, work overload, low task control
Identify five ways to manage workplace stress.Remove stressor, withdraw from stressor, change stress perceptions, control stress consequences, and receive social support
Emotional laborEffort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
Cognitive dissonanceWe perceive inconsistency between beliefs, feelings, and behavior.
Affective commitment"Want to stay" - emotional attachment, identifies with and is involved with org
Continuance commitment"Have to stay" - no choice, no alternative, too costly to quit
Normative commitment"Should stay" - because of feelings of obligation
StressorsAny environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on the person
AttitudesJudgments about attitude object, based on rational logic, usually stable for days or longer
EmotionsExperiences related to an attitude object, based on innate and learned responses to environment, usually experienced for seconds or less

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