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Metapopulations and Corridors (Test 2)

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amsykes's version from 2018-04-16 23:22

Section 1

Question Answer
What is a subpopulation nested in a regional population?Metapopulation
Collectively as a whole what do all metapopulations on a regional scale represent?Population
What are sub-populations?Identifiable breeding groups that are separated spatially, but have gene flow between them
Among subpopulations, one flow is negatively correlated to ________.distance
What did Levin's Occupancy Modeling predict?The likelihood of an organism occupying a habitat patch, and held that unoccupied patched were just as important as the occupied patches
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Section 2

Question Answer
What are unoccupied habitat patches?Areas populated by nonproductive members of a species including juveniles and geriatrics
What are three uses of temporary vacant patches?Habitat for satellite males, juveniles (reduced competition and predation), and spill over populations
The health of populations are directly correlated to what?Available habitat; more habitat=larger metapopulation; larger metapopulation=higher amount of genetic diversity; higher amount of genetic diversity= increased adaptability and robustness
_______ ______ can be given to sub populations based other overall recruitment into populationsFitness values
What are sink values and what do they mean?Values < 1 means there is no active recruitment
What are source populations and what do they mean?Values > 1 means there is active recruitment
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Section 3

Question Answer
What are the four groups that compose a population life table?1. Neonate 2. Juvenile 3. Reproductive 4. Geriatric
What are fitness values?Long-term average of population increase or decrease, which is determined by temporal monitoring
Concerning habitat types, what can sinks and sources help determine?Sinks and sources help determine healthy and impacted habitat types
How can long-term data benefit present day populations?Historical data including life history information can aid in their determination of a species conservation standing, and can aid in the study of surrogate species that can aid imperiled taxa with similar life histories
What three things define source populations? 1. Represent highly advantageous habitat 2. Maintain genetic viability 3. Give a reference condition for conservation efforts
What three things define sink populations?1. Provide habitat that increases the overall population size 2. Different demographics utilize this habitat 3. 90% of a given species habitat often times represented as sinks
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Section 4

Question Answer
Humanity's ultimate impact on a species is determined by...?The impact on source populations especially when small populations are left
What is an example of subpopulation using space differently over the course of a year? Breeding season
What is critical to the long-term maintenance of a meta-population system?Corridors
What is a corridor?Habitat patch with enough cover that links two discrete habitat patches together, which allows animals to move from population to population
What is one of the most pressing conservation issues in Appalachia that promotes unnatural metapopulation systems?Forest fragmentation
Which five organism types are most impacted by forest fragmentation and why? 1. Large mammals 2. Salamanders 3. Fungi 4. Neotropical songbirds 5. Spring ephemerals are impacted because they need continuous tracts of forest to survive
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Section 5

Question Answer
What is a ecotone?Where two habitats meet
What are three animals that benefit from fragmentation?Snakes (more places to bask), Coyotes (fields mean more easy meals), and deer (thrive in disturbed environments)
How does fragmentation effect a species genetically?The destruction of gene pool connectivity decreases fitness, leads to genetic bottlenecks, and can cause inbreeding depressions on local scale
How are r and k selected species effected by fragmentation?r selected species thrive. K selected species will be negatively impacted because they thrive in stable ecosystems, and specialists will be more severely impacted than generalists.
What happens without habitats needed for feeding, grooming, breeding, and circadian rhythmic movements?Without these habitats stress can lead to increased disease, more intense territorial disputes, and social strife
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Section 6

Question Answer
What are edge effects specific to Appalachia?Desiccation and invasion are the edge effects caused by deforestation of mesophytic forests
Describe how edge effects impact Appalachian ecosystems. Removal of the canopy cover dries out Appalachian ecosystems. Once dry, natives lose the competitive advantage, and certain invasive can move in
How can removal of forest impact soil temperatures?Increased light levels creates heat islands in which localized convection currents causes increased levels of evaporation.
What does surface mining, timbering, and development cause?Heat islands (forests to dry out)
What causes deforestation impacts to be more drastic?When detritus and topsoils are removed the net effects result in desiccation.
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