Merchants and their world - merchants-events-places-historians

isabel's version from 2015-05-11 10:47


Question Answer
Commendainvestor profits 2/3, traveller 1/3
Barditrading partnerships renewed 70 years +
Medici companydid nothing without insurance in the 15h century.
Letters of Datinimore than 3,000 survive. Friends questioned his involvement in usury & he talked of guilt.
Thomas Rampstontaken hostage in 1429, 6 years to collect his ransom, transferred quickly to captors by Borromei bank
Philip the GoodMid 15th century Duke of Burgundy, supported infrastructure, united territories, ended debasement and standardised currencies, ended internal tolls, standardised courts.
Nobilityconsuming as much as 4,000 calories/day in this period.
Giovanni Comesini vs John Bestclaimed Best only insured his ship after it was attacked, 1487, Bruges.
William de la Polec.1290-1366 worked in King's Port Hull, lent money to King for war against Scotland 1327, granted wool export monopoly 30s, abuse led to trial but financial importance left him invincible.
Rapondi FamilyLuccan silk merchants loans to Bruges to advance on taxes, left near politically dependant on family.
Giovanni di Bicci1360-1439, self-made, no pedigree, starts in Rome, moves base to Florence for investment, opens further branches inclu. Geneva allowing transfers for fayre.
Cosimo di Mediciopens further branches and fabric workshops. Granted Papal Alum Cartel. Indirect involvement in politics - de facto ruler. Exiled 1433 after war - followed by so much business asked to return.
Lorenzo MediciRelations with the papacy worsened, 2 brothers killed, withdrew from business (bank disbanded 1492) and took title Duke of Florence 1512 after second period of exile. "the magnificent"
16th century Medicis2 Popes & 2 Queens of France
Datini's ledgersrecord domestic & business expenses together
Madamde de RuddervoordeWidowed hostel matron, actively represented clients in trade & banking.
Leonardo Fibonacci1202 published 'liber abaci'
Francesco Pegolottipublished popular manual 1340, printed 3 times even in 5th century. Transferred annuls and taxes of papacy.
Flemish artists patronisedJan Van Eyck, Hans Memling
Corpus Christi Guild, York16,000 members c.1340.
Reformers against usuryLuther and Zwingli
Reformer allowing interestJohn Calvin
Francesco Datinic. 1335-1410. Traded in luxuries such as artists' supplies
Margherita Bondaniwife of Datini, social superior, 25 years junior.
Tommaso Spinelli1398-1472 self-made, apprentice - finances pope - founds own company 1447 - moves to Florence - connections to successfully sell silk - stayed out of Florence's factional politics.


Question Answer
Portuguese explorations15th century, sugar production on Madeira from 1480s, Bartolomeu Dias was first to sail around Africa 1488.
English/Italian wool trade7.5 million sheep's wool bought by Italian merchants every year.
Fur tradeup to 0.5 million squirrel skins/year shipped by Hanseatic League from Russia. Best ermine/sable brought overland by Genoese.
Hat tradeGhent, population 60,000 - 1/2 had been in wool trade. Flemish began making luxury hats/gloves/hosiery - less wool required, same profit.
Syriawhere the Venetians got their glass expertise from.
French civil warMore Luccan silk merchants in Paris than in Bruges, forced to chose 1 side of conflict to do business with, many bankrupted.
Revolt against HRE1479, foreign merchants asked to leave Bruges
Luther's 95 Thesispublished against indulgences sold to repay loans to the Fugger bank
Florence consensus1427 - revealed 52% lived with extended family,especially the wealthy. Most lived in neighbourhood with 'alberghi'.
Expulsion of Jews from England1290 when Edward I couldn't repay his debts to Jewish lenders.
Bloody 16th centuryreligious nature of warfare put merchant's person in danger for first time
Dutch Revolt1566 - start of Antwerp's decline
Spanish Fury1576 Spain couldn't pay troops and allowed them to sack Antwerp
Founding of VOCDutch East Indian Company - 38% capital provided by immigrants from Antwerp
Lyons and Luccareligious persecution caused many to spread both Calvinism and Capitalism in Geneva
Collection of Fugger newsletters/tidings1568-1604 by Eduardo Fugger.
Jakob Fugger II"the Rich" built up Fugger company through loans using mines as security


Question Answer
Venetian territoriesIncluded Serbian coast and much of Greece. Crete = main sweet wine producer. Good access to spice trade, including Lebanon.
Genevan territoriesTerritory on Crimean peninsula access to Russian trade. Also islands Clio, producer of Alum, and Pera, directly opposite Constantinople.
Hanseatic kontos/outpostsNorogod, Bergen, London & Bruges.
LuccaSilk trade from 12th century, monopoly until 15th century.
Milanproduced best armoury. Imitated by Southern Germans when new metals found.
Venetian Arsenal15% of city, turned out galleys based on Roman ships. Fast, carried c.300 tonnes.
16th century Venice1 in 8 men had an account with a money changer.
Barcelonabankrupt money changer forced to live of bread and water until he repaid his clients, else be beheaded.
Avignon600 officers at Papal palace, 20,000 merchants follow Papacy's move
Lambeth PalaceOpposite Palace of Westminster, imitating royal spending
Parismore than 60 windmills in the city in this period
Jerusalem ChurchBruges, built by Adorno family from Genoa
Florence, 1130s6 Abacus schools, teaching c. 1,000 students
Santa CroceBardi & Peruzzi family chapel. Later Spinelli patronage; family chapel, sacristy, South Cloister 1440-60
TukesburyEnglish monastic house involved in wool trade
St George AlmshousesBruges, run by hostellar
Fugger social housesAusberg, prayers in return for housing
Santa Maria Nuovafounded by Portinaris, remains Florence's main hospital


Question Answer
Protestant values drove the emergence of CapitalismMax Weber
Catholic Italy saw the birth of Capitalismcritics of Max Weber
Reformation led to separation of trade & religion --> subversion of religion for material wealthR H Tawney
Merchants attracted to low transaction costs but princes always got caught up in war eventuallyOscar Gelderblom
Bruges' banks & their wide networks of communication & payment made it successfulJim Murry
Merchants were attracted to Bruges for low transaction costs and favourable privilegesDouglas North
"Medieval supercompanies"Edwin Hunt
Population growth and agricultural innovation meant there was surplus to tradeRoberto Sabatanio Lopez
Not a new revolution but accelerationRichard Goldthwaite
Hardship & lost profit of late 14th/15th century meant far from stagnation, new innovationRichard Goldthwaite
Plague, warfare and worsening climate made trade stagnate c. 1350Roberto Sabatanio Lopez
Consumer driven economy before 1900Henry Ford
Economic decline 14th/15th century --> lack of business investments caused investors to turn to cultureRoberto Sabatanio Lopez
Italy was the most economically advanced part of Europe, so why, would a slump-fuelled Renaissance begin here of all places?critics of Roberto Sabatanio Lopez
Creative and expansive economy of 14th century-> accumulation of wealth -> urban elites had no estates to maintain so spent conspicuouslyRichard Goldthwaite
Dutch economy & industry growing since 14th centuryJ De Vries & A Van der Woude
First immigrants to Amsterdam young with no capital. First immigrants moved 1578 when Amsterdam's governance was taken over by protestants.Oscar Gelderblom
Movement not directly to Amsterdam, but 1590s when new trades in luxuries appear.Jonathon Israel
Antwerp: Young representatives made foundations for established bosses. Brought with them expertise and networks.Cle Lesger
300 immigrants from Antwerp behind 38% of investment capital of VOC/Dutch EICJ G Van Dillien
"creative enviroment" of Burgundian court: many classes together fuelled competition and innovationW Blockman
Immigrants banned from public office for 20 years put the impetus on tradeCle Lesger