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Memory & Language

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icer215's version from 2016-08-25 23:01

Section

Question Answer
Encodingnew information is put into memory Automatic processing Information is obtained without effort
Automatic processingInformation is obtained without effort
Controlled (effortful) processingInformation is obtained with effort = active memorization
Visual encodingthe things that we see
Semantic encodingmeaningful context
Acoustic encodingsound information
Processes that aid in encoding memoriesMaintenance rehearsal & Use of mnemonics
Maintenance rehearsalRepetition of information to store as working memory or as short-term memory into long-term memory
Use of mnemonicsWay to memorize by organizing certain information into acronyms or rhyming phrases
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Question Answer
Types of memory storage (e.g., sensory, working, long-term)Sensory memory, Working memory, Long-term memory
Sensory memoryVery brief storage of memory through our senses, Quick loss of information, Stores information for ¼ – ¾ second
Working memoryStores little longer about 20 – 30 seconds, Rehearsal of the information help to keep the information as long as process continues, Capacity of storage is around 7 items (hence our phone number is 7 digits long)
Long-term memoryStorage of information can last from days to a lifetime. Through repeated use of information help short-term memory to develop into long-term memory
Semantic networkSemantic memory involves memory of meanings. Concepts, words, or perceptual features are linked in different length indicating the relationship between the links and how strong they are related to each other
Spreading activationProcess of searching for networks including semantic, neural, or associative networks. Propagating the nodes (concepts, words, etc.) to other nodes linking to the source
RetrievalRecall, recognition, and relearning
RecallRefers to the retrieval of information from the past which have been encoded and stored in the brain previously, Remembering a fact, even, or object, Brain carry out the same pattern of neural activity as the original response when brain first perceived the information
RecognitionProcess of comparing information with memory, Associated with previous experience or information learned, Mostly unconscious process
Retrieval cuesFacilitate recall, Help recover memories that was forgotten, Can be visual, auditory, olfactory cues
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Question Answer
The role of emotion in retrieving memoriesNeutral words give less impact than positive or negative words, Emotional words or sounds are more memorable than neutral sounds(Louder, enthusiastic, unusual speaker = memorable phrases and speech)
Aging and memoryDifferent ideas about age and memory, Some says memory fades in old age, while some says age does not lead to memory loss, In scientific studies, memory range of 70-year old individuals is larger than 20-year old individuals, Elders can still recall memories very well and can easily learn, Time-based prospective memory (performing tasks) declines with age
Memory dysfunctions (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Korsakoff’s syndrome)Occurs when there is a damage to neuroanatomical structures. Storing, recalling, and recollecting of memories are inadequate
Alzheimer’s disease (AD)Progressive, degenerative, and fatal brain disease. Lost of cell’s connection to other cells in the brain, Form of dementia, 1-5% of the world’s population is affected by this disease, Women are more severely affected by this disease than men
Lost of cell’s connection to other cells in the brainCerebral cortex shrinks, Ventricles are enlarged
AmnesiaAbnormal mental condition, Anterograde amnesia = difficult to learn and retain information, Retrograde amnesia = loss of memory to certain events
Parkinson’s diseaseNeurodegenerative disease, Cells producing dopamine fail = impairs movements, Stiffness, impaired balance, muscle rigidity, tremors, etc., Also involves depression and memory dysfunction
Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndromeThiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency causes this neural disorder, Associated with excessive alcohol consumption, Involves cerebellum dysfunction, amnesia, and impaired short-term memory
DecayMemory fades in time, Later the retrieval, less information stored in the memory, Over time, neurochemical path of new memory is degenerated, Affects mostly on the short-term memory than the long-term memory
Long-term memoryis more resistant from being forgotten
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Question Answer
Interferencebetween learning new things and older memories
Retroactive inhibitionLearning new things interfere with retaining old memories
Proactive inhibitionRetaining old memories interferes with learning new things
False memoryA phenomenon of filling in gaps in our memories that did not actually happen
Misinformation effectThe most recent information received causes recall of episodic memories to become less accurate, New information distorts the original event, Increased attention to recent information causes alteration of original memory, Ongoing throughout life, Affected by heredity and environment at some kind of levels
Source amnesiaConfusion between semantic and episodic memory. Can remember factual knowledge but can’t remember the context of how, when, where the knowledge was acquired
Neural plasticityFormation of neural connections. Allow neurons to repair, regrow, and adapt after injuries or disease
Vary by ageRapid formation of neural connections in children
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Question Answer
Learningacquiring knowledge or skill
Memoryacquired information
Memory dependson learning
Learning dependson memory
Long-term potentiation (LTP)Signal transmission that strengthens the response at the post-synaptic nerve cells by forming additional synapses. Essential phenomenon for neural plasticity
Early phaseOccurs in the first hour or so, Activation of CaMKII and PKC, Independent of protein synthesis
Late phaseRequire gene transcription in the postsynaptic cell.(new gene transcription and mRNA translation. Increases # of AMPA receptors = increase in the size of the synaptic connection) Depends on protein synthesis
Process of LTPRapid stimulation of CA1 neurons in the hippocampus, Glu and D-serine binds to NMDA receptors, Ca2+ flow into the cell, Ca2+ binds to calmodulin, CaMKII is activated, which phosphorylates AMPA receptors
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Permeability of Na+ ions increase which increases cell’s sensitivity to depolarize, Gene expression and protein synthesis increases, Synaptic connection strengthens

 

Question Answer
The learning perspectiveChildren learn from punishment and reinforcement
B.F. SkinnerArgued that children’s speech is shaped by association, imitation, and reinforcement. Reinforcing words help children to imitate speech by babbling sounds
The nativist/Innatist perspectiveHumans are born with biological program to learn language (gain knowledge)
Noam ChomskyArgued that humans’ brain have language acquisition device (LAD), which develops children’s language skills. Children are born with a set of universal grammar and by learning vocabularies, they can form sentences
The interactionist perspectiveSocial and biological influences language development
Lev VygotskyArgued that language develops through collaborative learning. Desire to learn by children and desire to teach by adults have to come together
Influence of Language on CognitionLanguage affects the cognitive processes in an individual
Sapir-Whorf hypothesisAlso known as Whorfianism, States that the language determines one’s thought, The linguistic categories and usage on one’s cognition is influenced non-linguistically, Patterns of language that one speaks influences the way that person thinks and perceive the world
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Question Answer
Wernicke’s areaLocated in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus in the dominant cerebral hemisphere (95% of population are left lobe)
Wernicke’s area Responsible forLanguage comprehension (understanding written and spoken words)
Lesion at this area causesWernicke’s aphasia, Language comprehension is impaired, Meaningless sentences, Fluent speech, An individual is unaware of their symptoms
Broca’s areaLocated in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. An individual is aware of their symptoms
Lesion at this area causesExpressive aphasia & Speech impairment
Speech impairmentDifficulty forming words & Sentences are mainly verbs/nouns
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