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Memorize ALL OF THE THINGS

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lunalovegood's version from 2016-04-01 16:19

Section

Overview
Question Answer
DNA virusesPapilloma, adeno, pox, herpes
Papillomavirus (HPV)ds DNA
Adenoviruslinear ds DNA
Poxviruslinear ds DNA
Herpes virusds DNA
VZV, EBV, cytomegalovirusHerpes virus (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, cytomegalovirus)
RNA virusesReoviruses, Caliciviruses, Picornaviruses, Togaviruses, Orthomyxoviruses
Reovirusds negative RNA 10-12 molecules
Reovirus genera, orbivirus, coltivirus, rotavirusReoviruses
Calicivirus1 piece of positive sense ss RNA 32 cup-shaped depressions
Picornaviruses (list)enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, Hep A
Picornaviruses (describe)1 piece of positive sense ss RNA
Enterovirusespolio, coxsackie, echo, new enterviruses
Rubivirus, alphavirus, pestivirusTogaviruses
Rubellass RNA sense
Orthomyxovirusnegative sense strand RNA
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Tropisms - ish
Question Answer
Basal cellsHPV
Squamous epithelial cellsHPV
Basal keratinocyteHPV
Respiratory secretions, adenoid tissuesadenovirus
Herpes labialis? Genital herpes?HSV-1, HSV-2
GI tractenteroviruses (polio multiplies in oropharyngeal & intestinal mucosa - infects cervical & small intestine lymph nodes --> epithelium of large intestine --> Peyer's patches --> blood brain barrier --> anterior horn cells of motor neurons --> brain --- bulbar polio)
Noserhinovirus
Intestinal epithelial cells, parenchymal cells of liverHep A
Multiplies in respiratory system cells, extends to LNs & spleenRubella
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ENVELOPE
Question Answer
Papillomano
Adenovirusno
Poxyes (double envelope! double rainbow!)
Herpes yes
Reovirusno
Rotavirusno (but has unique temporary envelope when being formed)
Calicivirusno
Picornavirusesno
Rubellayes
Orthomyxovirusyes
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SHAPE
Question Answer
Papillomaicosahedral
Adenovirusicosahedral
Poxbrick-shaped virion
Reovirusicosahedral
Calicivirusicosahedral
Picornavirusesicosahedral
Rubellaicosahedral
Orthomyxovirushelical nucleocapsid
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SIZE
Question Answer
Papilloma55nm (very small)
Adenovirus80m
Pox250-400nm (LARGE)
Herpes150nm
Reovirus70-85nm
Calicivirus27nm (small)
Picornaviruses24-30nm (smallest)
Rubella40-80nm
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Segments
Question Answer
Reovirus genera10
Orbivirus10
Coltivirus12
Rotavirus11
Orthomyxovirustypes A & B have 8 segments, Type C has 7 segments
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INTO THE CELL WE GO
Question Answer
Papillomareceptor-mediated endocytosis
Adenovirusreceptor-mediated endocytosis
Binds to glycoprotein C on cell membraneHerpes
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RANDOM
Question Answer
Papilloma "vegetative DNA" replication occurs in ____ (more/less) differentiated cells.more
Papillomas are water-soluble?yes
3 cutaneous papillomasplantar, common flat
3 mucosal papillomasoral cavity, larynx, anogenital area
Most lethal HPVs16 & 18
Cervical dysplasiaHPV-16, HPV-18 (also 6 &11)
HPV-6 and -11mucosal (oral, larynx, anogenital)
HPV-2 and -4common (cutaneous)
HPV-1 and -4plantar (cutaneous)
HPV-3 and -10flat (cutaneous)
79 million infected, 14mil new per year, most sexually active ppl will acquireHPV
T/F - 42% of 20-24yo F & 35% of 25-29yo F have genital HPV. 70% of genital infections are subclinical. 90% of cases the infection will clear in 2 years.T
7th most common cancer. 2nd most common in women.Cervical cancer (HPV detectable by PCR in 99.7% of cervical cancers. 85% of cervical carcinomas contain intergrated HPV DNA)
79% anal cancers, 66% cervical cancers, 62% oropharyngeal cancers, 55% vaginal cancersHPV-16 & -18
HPV-16 & -18 oncogenesE6 & E7 (Early genes)
Swimming. Red eyes.adenovirus
Potential vector for gene replacement therapy (cystic fibrosis)adenovirus
Capable of eliciting tumors in animal hostsadenovirus
May establish latent infections in tonsils and adenoidsadenovirus
Most common adenoviral eye infectionacute follicular conjuctivitis (pink eye!)
T/F - Adenoviruses are responsible for 15% of pts hospitalized for viral gastroenteritis.T
Ad40, Ad41, Ad42Enteric adenoviruses (gastroenteritis)
Virus factory - they do not need anything from the cell.Pox (occurs in cytoplasm)
T/F - There are 50mil american with genital herpes.T (25% of women, 20% of men AND 85% DON'T KNOW!!! watch out...)
Herpes - alpha is ___ growing. Beta is ____.fast, slow
Alphaherpes virusesHSV-1, HSV-2, varicella (fast!)
Betaherpes virusescytomegalovirus (slow...)
Gammaherpesvirusepstein-bar virus
____ sense strand can be used as mRNA. ____ sense strand can make a positive sense.positive, negative
Stable to heat, pH range 3-9, lipid solvents, inactivated by 95% ethanol phenol and chlorine, oncolytic anticancer therapyReovirus
Promising anticancer therapy for Ras signaling pathwaysReovirus
Colorado tick feverOrbivirus? Coltivirus? (reovirus)
Low calcium in endosome triggers VP7 to come off of ___virus.rotavirus
Decreased intestinal absorption of Na+, glucose, H2O & decreased levels of intestinal lactase, alkaline phosphatase & sucrase activity - isotonic diarrhearotavirus
T/F - Rotavirus is very stable and may remain viable in the environment for weeks or MONTHS if not disinfected.T
Norwalk agent, Hawaii virus, Ditchling virusCalcicivirus
Most common cause of gastroenteritis in USnorovirus
Stable in 10mg/l chlorinated water, survives freezing & heating to 140F, survives for days on solid surfaces - longer in waternorovirus (sufficient heat or chlorine will rapidly disinfect)
32 cup shaped depressionscalcicivirus
Highly contagious, FAST & FURIOUS, 10 viral particles sufficient for infection, most common in winter.Norovirus (norovirus is a calicivirus. Khaleesi is fast and furious with only 10 Dothraki she'll take over Westeros. And winter is coming...)
Responsible for host tropisms, protection of genome and antigenicity. ____ proteinsstructural (stimulate immune system in host and help virus be pathogenic)
Proteases, RNA polymerase, inhibitors of normal host cell functions. _____ proteinsnon-structural
Can your cat get polio? Your dog? Horse? Parrot? Wombat?no, humans are only host
Subclinical 90-95%. Abortive 4-8%. Major illness 1-2%.polio
Abortive - Acute anterior - Ascending - Bulbar - Cerebral - Spinal paralyticpoliomyelitis
Which Polio vaccination did Cassie receive?IPV (standard in US since 1987 - not as effective as OPV - scary)
Salk ___. Sabin ____.IPV, OPV
Apthous fever, never human pathogenfoot and mouth disease
Does Hep A cause chronic liver disease?NO NO NO nope nope no nope and no nope (p.s. no)
Alphavirus - very similar to Rubella, but needs ____ host.arthropod (mosquito)
Horses are very susceptible to ____alphavirus (equine encephalitis)
Orthomyxovirus - Type ___ is humans, swine, birds, horses, seals. Type ___ is humans. Type _________ is humans & sine.A, B, C
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INCUBATION
Question Answer
Papilloma1-3 months
Acute follicular conjunctivitis5-7 days
Colorado tick fever3-6 days (orbivirus? coltivirus? reovirus)
Rotavirus1-3 days
NorovirusFAST & FURIOUS <24 hours
Polio7-14 days (day 11 = full symptoms)
Rhinovirus2-4 days
Hep A4 weeks
Postnatal rubella14 days
Flu2 days
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TYPES
Question Answer
HPVmore than 100 types
Adenovirus51 serotypes
Herpesas many as 150 types, 8 human
Reovirus9 distinct genera, 4 infect humans/animals
Rotavirus5 human serotypes
Picornavirus5 genera, 3 human
Polio3 serotypes (no common antigen)
CoxsackieGroup A - 23 serotypes & Group B - 6 serotypes
Echoviruses32 serotypes
New enteroviruses4 serotypes
Rhinovirus>115 serotypes (not cross-reactive, little cross-protection)
Rubella1 serotype
Alphavirus26 antigenic sites
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CONTRACTION
Question Answer
Papillomadirect or indirect contact (bathroom floors)
Adenovirusrespiratory, water-borne, fecal, and fomite
Rotavirusfecal (tropical areas have cases year-round w/ peak in rainy season. USA peak prevalence is cooler months.)
Norovirusdirect, fecal, contaminated food/water, airborne droplets
EnterovirusesGI tract - fecal matter - sewage, waste, water supply, shellfish
Coxsackie Virus A (hand foot mouth)direct contact
Rubellarespiratory system (cough, sneeze)
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SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Question Answer
Often asymptomatic. Fever, pharyngitis, tonsilitis, coughendemic respiratory disease - adenovirus
Low fever, pharyngitis, conjuctivitis (uni or bi)pharyngoconjunctival fever - adenovirus (pool)
Common conjunctivitis, unilateralacute follicular conjunctivitis - adenovirus (direct contact)
Ocular trauma, corneal opacities, uni or biepidemic keratoconjunctivitis - adenovirus
Most subclinical, common cold-like, mild febrile, gastroenteritis, febrile URT infectionReovirus
Sudden onset chills, variable fever, headache, retro-orbital pain, aches, malaise, rash, nausea, occasionally vomitingColorado tick fever (orbivirus? coltivirus? reovirus)
DIARRHEArotavirus (and vomiting)
Epidemic, explosive, self-limiting gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) - cramps, low fever, malaise, myalgiaNorovirus
Very painful blisters on mouth - cold drinks & ice cream helphand foot and mouth disease (coxsackie virus A)
Cough, sore throat, congestion, bronchitisrhinovirus (common cold)
Fever, pale feces, jaundiceHep A
Stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, birth defectscongenital rubella (cataracts, glaucoma, patent ductus arteriosis, deafness, mental retardation, encephalitits, microcephaly, hepatitis, pneumonitis)
Rash, lymphadenopahty, low feverpostnatal rubella
Mandibular incisors missing, narrow arch, deep palate, mental incapacitiescongenital rubella
Fever, malaise, headache, encephalitis. OR Arthritis, arthralgia, fever, rashalphavirus
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DIAGNOSIS
Question Answer
Adenovirusisolate virus, immunofluorescent assays, PCR of aspirated cells, serologic complement fixation test for specific ab
Rotavirusserological tests - PCR, complement fixation assays, RIA, EIA. Direct electron microscopy of stool sample will reveal virions. Newborns and breast-feeding children might have higher false-positive rates)
NorovirusPCR, immune electron microscopy, RIA to detect viral ag in feces
Congential Rubellaisolate virus in urine, CSF, blood - IgM from fatal or neonate - Mom's IgG
Alphavirusbeen in South America, S&S, isolate virus, detect IgM
Fluisolate virus and grow in embryonated eggs, direct immunofluorescence, PCR, RT-PCR, serodiagnosis
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PREVENTION (and random inserations of treatments)
Question Answer
Adenovirusoral vaccines - lyophylized live viruses type 4 &7 in enteric capsule
HPVgardisil
Smallpoxlive Vaccinia virus (very effective, not a type of smallpox virus)
HSV-1GREEN TEA OBVIOUSLY! (no vaccine, Abreva, Acyclovir, Foscavir)
Rotaviruslive oral vaccine RotaTeq (3 doses - 2, 4, & 6 months - do not give after 8mo)
PolioIPV & OPV (IPV prevents viremia, OPV gives local immunity)
Hep Avaccine in 1995
Rubellalive attenuated MMR 1969
Alphavirusvaccinate horses. vaccinate high risk humans
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