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Medieval Art Test 3

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rosesarered's version from 2018-05-09 10:58

Chapter 14

Question Answer
Baptisterybuilding or part of church used for baptism
CampanileItalian, bell tower built inside or attached to a church
Blind arcadingan arcade that is composed of a series of arches that has no actual openings and that is applied to the surface of a wall as a decorative element, i.e. the arches are not windows or openings but are part of the masonry face
Zebra banding/zebra stripes
Nielloa black compound of sulfur with silver, lead, or copper, used for filling in engraved designs in silver or other metals
Repoussémetalwork hammered into low relief from reverse side
Champlevéenamelwork in which hollows made in a metal surface are filled with colored enamel
Cloisonnéa style of enamel decoration in which the enamel is applied and fired in raised cells (as of soldered wires) on a usually metal background, decorative work in which enamel, glass, or gemstones are separated by strips of flattened wire placed edgeways on a metal backing
Romanesque sculpture general characteristicssimple themes, storytelling, abstraction, flat, elongated OR compressed proportions, linear, simplified color (but bold) polychrome - not a single style, more regional
Christ in Majestymandorla, blessing gesture, cruciform halo, Alpha Omega, Ego sum lux mundi, enthroned on “globe”
Ego sum lux mundiI am the light of the world
Medieval abstractionthe divine is not supposed to look like us. Platonic idea. What we see here is NOT what is seen in heaven.
Eschatologythe part of theology concerned with death, judgment, and the final destiny of the soul and of humankind
To Italy/German RomanesqueFocus on stone vaulting, Architectural design as decoration rather than narrative (meaning few readable stories)
Holy Roman Empire quick historyDecember 25, 800 Charlemagne crowned Imperator Augustus. 800-973 Imperator Augustus. 973-83 Roman Emperor. 1034 Roman Empire. 1157 Holy Empire. 1254 Holy Roman Empire. 1756 Voltaire describes it as “neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire”
Speyer CathedralBegun as funerary cathedral for an emperor, but Speyer is a Free City. Crypt under the transept and choir. nave piers are 6’x8’, tallest Romanesque interior (107 feet from floor), crossing vault is tallest
repousse and chasing metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief. Chasing is the opposite of repoussé, and the two are used in conjunction to create a finished piece. It is also known as embossing
Klosterneuburg AltarpieceNicholas of Verdun- Champlevé enamel in niello. Typology connecting OT and NT bible stories
Champlevé vs cloisonnéChamplevé is, basically, carving into the surface to make troughs for the colored glass. Cloisonné is, basically, building up troughs.
memorize

Chapter 15

Question Answer
William the Conquerorfirst Norman king of England
Embroiderythe art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn
Pythagorean definition of beautyOrder, Harmony, Measure, Proportion
Platoultimate reality is only knowable through reason and reflection. Images help us to reflect intelligently on ultimate reality, which cannot be made physically manifest on earth
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Chapter 16

Question Answer
Abbot Sugera French abbot, statesman, and historian - he was one of the earliest patrons of Gothic architecture, and is widely credited with popularizing the style - has the Parisian martyr’s relics, has the writings of the Neoplatonist in his library, thinks the martyr is the Pauline convert, thinks the writings are by the martyr
Dionysius the Areopagite1st century Athenian, converted by Paul
Dionysius the Gaul3rd century bishop of Paris and martyr
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite6th century Syrian Neoplatonist (who used the name of the convert as a pseudonym to gain authority) God is the One and is Beauty. We can only know true beauty through reason. Reason appears on this plane through Order, Harmony, Measure, Proportion. LIGHT (the Universal Soul/Holy Spirit) is the ultimate guide to Divine Reason (tangible Jesus): we can’t touch it, but we can’t see without it
De Administratione
Lux novanew light - Stained glass played an important role in Gothic architecture and is where the inspiration for the phrase lux nova spoke by Abbot Suger came from. He called the light "wonderful and uninterrupted.” The rose window was introduced in the Gothic era and was a standard in French churches
Geometry“measure of the earth” in Greek. Geometry is a clue to the divine plan: something perfect, yet tangible.
Lancets and rose
Rose windowa circular window, those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style and being divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery
Chevet(apse, ambulatory, radiating side chapels)
Flying buttressa buttress slanting from a separate pier, typically forming an arch with the wall it supports
Ribbed vaultThe intersection of two to three barrel vaults produces a rib vaultor ribbed vault when they are edged with an armature of piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns
Quadripartite a rib vault which is divided into four sections by two diagonal ribs
Gablethe generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system used, which reflects climate, material availability, and aesthetic concerns
Pinnaclean architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. The pinnacle looks like a small spire
Crocketa hook-shaped decorative element common in Gothic architecture. The name derives from the diminutive of the French croc, meaning "hook"
Nichenook, cranny, crevice
Tracery the stonework elements that support the glass in a Gothic window
Elevationaisle/arcade, triforium, clerestory
Aristotle (be able to discuss in a general way his influence on Gothic thought)ultimate reality is knowable through experience and observation. An image exists as a perfect thing in and of itself, although it may lead to consideration of something larger than itself (an acorn is perfect as a seed, but it has as its “goal” to become an oak)
Scatologyhumor derived from bodily functions: sex, pooh, butt puns, etc.
memorize

Chapter 17

Question Answer
RayonnantStained glass windows encompassed most of the cathedral, the heavy, rigidity of the supporting elements were eradicated. The stained glass filters light and imbues the interior with an unearthly radiant atmosphere. This style emphasizes extreme slenderness of architectural forms and linearity of form, while relying almost entirely on exquisite color and precise carving of details
Gothic S-curvekey characteristic of late Gothic style, curving of the figure in S-shape showing drapery of clothing and elegance
Bas-de-pageFrench, “bottom of the page” in medieval illuminated manuscripts, bas-de-page scenes are unframed, sometimes whimsical images that appear below the written text and may or may not refer to it
Marginaliadecorations in the margins
Grisaillea method of painting in gray monochrome, typically to imitate sculpture,
“Muldenfaltenstil”the trough style
AnnunciationAngel Gabriel approaches Mary to deliver the news that she is to become the Mother of God
VisitationMary visits her elderly cousin Elizabeth to declare her pregnancy, only to discover that Elizabeth is also miraculously pregnant with Jesus’s cousin, John the Baptist
Roman styleverism
Remois smileanti-naturalism/elegant formalism
memorize

Chapter 18

Question Answer
Opus francigenumContemporaries used this expression, meaning 'French work', to describe Gothic architectural styles that spread from northern France throughout Europe beginning
Lancet gothicLancets without tracery, came before decorated gothic. Repetition of simple patterns (Salisbury and Lincoln Cathedral are Lancet style)
Decorated gothicWindow tracery (especially vertical mullions), Geometric Style, Curvilinear Style
Ridge ribcentral longitudinal rib running the length of the center (rib which runs down the apex of the vault in a longitudinal direction)
Tierceron ribs that spring from side arches, but do not converge at a central point (one of the minor or intermediate ribs in Gothic vaulting that spring from the pier on each side of the main diagonal rib and therefore do not pass through the center of the vault)
Lierne(if we didn’t discuss, these are non-structural ribs that connect tiercerons, found in fan vaults) ribs that spring from ribs, not from the columns
Blind traceryTracery is a form of architectural decoration in which a frame (often a window, railing, or blind arch) is filled with interlacing bands of material. (A "blind arch" is an arch-shaped depression in a wall; tracery that spans a blind arch is known as "blind tracery")
Fan vault a form of vault used in the Gothic style, in which the ribs are all of the same curve and spaced equidistantly, in a manner resembling a fan
memorize

Chapter 19

Question Answer
Christus triumphanschrist triumphant
Christus patiens"suffering of Christ" a cross with a representation of the dead Christ
Altarpiecea work of art, especially a painting on wood, set above and behind an altar
Panel paintinga painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece, or a number of pieces joined together
Triptych (polyptych)a picture or relief carving on three panels, typically hinged together side by side and used as an altarpiece
memorize

Chapter 20

Question Answer
HallenkircheA church in which the side aisles are as high or almost as high as the nave and which consequently lacks a clerestory
Andachtsbildimage of contemplation (contemplate pain that Mary felt) - aid for prayer or contemplation
VesperbildPieta- a subject in Christian art depicting the Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus
“ars sine scientia nihil est”Art without knowledge is nothing
“Muldenfaltenstil”the trough style
AnnunciationAngel Gabriel approaches Mary to deliver the news that she is to become the Mother of God
VisitationMary visits her elderly cousin Elizabeth to declare her pregnancy, only to discover that Elizabeth is also miraculously pregnant with Jesus’s cousin, John the Baptist
Roman styleverism
Remois smileanti-naturalism/elegant formalism
memorize

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